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  1. Cosmological simulations of galaxy formation are limited by finite computational resources. We draw from the ongoing rapid advances in artificial intelligence (AI; specifically deep learning) to address this problem. Neural networks have been developed to learn from high-resolution (HR) image data and then make accurate superresolution (SR) versions of different low-resolution (LR) images. We apply such techniques to LR cosmological N-body simulations, generating SR versions. Specifically, we are able to enhance the simulation resolution by generating 512 times more particles and predicting their displacements from the initial positions. Therefore, our results can be viewed as simulation realizations themselves, rather than projections, e.g., to their density fields. Furthermore, the generation process is stochastic, enabling us to sample the small-scale modes conditioning on the large-scale environment. Our model learns from only 16 pairs of small-volume LR-HR simulations and is then able to generate SR simulations that successfully reproduce the HR matter power spectrum to percent level up to16h1Mpcand the HR halo mass function to within10%down to1011M. We successfully deploy the model in a box 1,000 times larger than the training simulation box, showing that high-resolution mock surveys can be generated rapidly. We conclude that AI assistance has themore »potential to revolutionize modeling of small-scale galaxy-formation physics in large cosmological volumes.

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  2. ABSTRACT We study the alignments of satellite galaxies, and their anisotropic distribution, with respect to location and orientation of their host central galaxy in MassiveBlack-II (MB-II) and IllustrisTNG simulations. We find that: the shape of the satellite system in haloes of mass ($\gt 10^{13}\, h^{-1}\, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$) is well aligned with the shape of the central galaxy at z = 0.06 with the mean alignment between the major axes being ∼Δθ = 12° when compared to a uniform random distribution; that satellite galaxies tend to be anisotropically distributed along the major axis of the central galaxy with a stronger alignment in haloes of higher mass or luminosity; and that the satellite distribution is more anisotropic for central galaxies with lower star formation rate, which are spheroidal, and for red central galaxies. Radially, we find that satellites tend to be distributed along the major axis of the shape of the stellar component of central galaxies at smaller scales and the dark matter component on larger scales. We find that the dependence of satellite anisotropy on central galaxy properties and the radial distance is similar in both the simulations with a larger amplitude in MB-II. The orientation of satellite galaxies tends tomore »point toward the location of the central galaxy at small scales and this correlation decreases with increasing distance, and the amplitude of satellite alignment is higher in high-mass haloes. However, the projected ellipticities do not exhibit a scale-dependent radial alignment, as has been seen in some observational measurements.« less
  3. ABSTRACT Galaxy intrinsic alignments (IAs) have long been recognized as a significant contaminant to weak lensing-based cosmological inference. In this paper we seek to quantify the impact of a common modelling assumption in analytic descriptions of IAs: that of spherically symmetric dark matter haloes. Understanding such effects is important as the current generation of IA models are known to be limited, particularly on small scales, and building an accurate theoretical description will be essential for fully exploiting the information in future lensing data. Our analysis is based on a catalogue of 113 560 galaxies between z = 0.06 and 1.00 from massiveblack-ii, a hydrodynamical simulation of box length $100 \, h^{-1}$ Mpc. We find satellite anisotropy contributes at the level of $\ge 30\!-\!40{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ to the small-scale alignment correlation functions. At separations larger than $1 \, h^{-1}$ Mpc the impact is roughly scale independent, inducing a shift in the amplitude of the IA power spectra of $\sim 20{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$. These conclusions are consistent across the redshift range and between the massiveblack-ii and the illustris simulations. The cosmological implications of these results are tested using a simulated likelihood analysis. Synthetic cosmic shear data are constructed with the expected characteristics (depth, area, andmore »number density) of a future LSST-like survey. Our results suggest that modelling alignments using a halo model based upon spherical symmetry could potentially induce cosmological parameter biases at the ∼1.5σ level for S8 and w.« less
  4. ABSTRACT We investigate the redshift evolution of the intrinsic alignments (IAs) of galaxies in the MassiveBlackII (MBII) simulation. We select galaxy samples above fixed subhalo mass cuts ($M_h\gt 10^{11,12,13}\,\mathrm{M}_{\odot }\, h^{-1}$) at z = 0.6 and trace their progenitors to z = 3 along their merger trees. Dark matter components of z = 0.6 galaxies are more spherical than their progenitors while stellar matter components tend to be less spherical than their progenitors. The distribution of the galaxy–subhalo misalignment angle peaks at ∼10 deg with a mild increase with time. The evolution of the ellipticity–direction (ED) correlation amplitude ω(r) of galaxies (which quantifies the tendency of galaxies to preferentially point towards surrounding matter overdensities) is governed by the evolution in the alignment of underlying dark matter (DM) subhaloes to the matter density of field, as well as the alignment between galaxies and their DM subhaloes. At scales $\sim 1~\mathrm{Mpc}\, h^{-1}$, the alignment between DM subhaloes and matter overdensity gets suppressed with time, whereas the alignment between galaxies and DM subhaloes is enhanced. These competing tendencies lead to a complex redshift evolution of ω(r) for galaxies at $\sim 1~\mathrm{Mpc}\, h^{-1}$. At scales $\gt 1~\mathrm{Mpc}\, h^{-1}$, alignment between DM subhaloes and matter overdensity does not evolve significantly; the evolutionmore »of the galaxy–subhalo misalignment therefore leads to an increase in ω(r) for galaxies by a factor of ∼4 from z = 3 to 0.6 at scales $\gt 1~\mathrm{Mpc}\, h^{-1}$. The balance between competing physical effects is scale dependent, leading to different conclusions at much smaller scales ($\sim 0.1~\mathrm{Mpc}\, h^{-1}$).« less