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  5. This is the second in a pair of works which study small disturbances to the plane, periodic 3D Couette flow in the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations at high Reynolds number Re . In this work, we show that there is constant 0 > c 0 ≪ 1 0 > c_0 \ll 1 , independent of R e \mathbf {Re} , such that sufficiently regular disturbances of size ϵ ≲ R e − 2 / 3 − δ \epsilon \lesssim \mathbf {Re}^{-2/3-\delta } for any δ > 0 \delta > 0 exist at least until t = c 0 ϵ − 1 t = c_0\epsilon ^{-1} and in general evolve to be O ( c 0 ) O(c_0) due to the lift-up effect. Further, after times t ≳ R e 1 / 3 t \gtrsim \mathbf {Re}^{1/3} , the streamwise dependence of the solution is rapidly diminished by a mixing-enhanced dissipation effect and the solution is attracted back to the class of “2.5 dimensional” streamwise-independent solutions (sometimes referred to as “streaks”). The largest of these streaks are expected to eventually undergo a secondary instability at t ≈ ϵ − 1 t \approx \epsilon ^{-1} . Hence, our work strongly suggests, for all (sufficiently regular) initial data, the genericity of the “lift-up effect ⇒ \Rightarrow streak growth ⇒ \Rightarrow streak breakdown” scenario for turbulent transition of the 3D Couette flow near the threshold of stability forwarded in the applied mathematics and physics literature. 
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