skip to main content

Search for: All records

Award ID contains: 1718216

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  2. Deep neural networks (DNNs) demonstrates significant advantages in improving ranking performance in retrieval tasks. Driven by the recent developments in optimization and generalization of DNNs, learning a neural ranking model online from its interactions with users becomes possible. However, the required exploration for model learning has to be performed in the entire neural network parameter space, which is prohibitively expensive and limits the application of such online solutions in practice. In this work, we propose an efficient exploration strategy for online interactive neural ranker learning based on bootstrapping. Our solution is based on an ensemble of ranking models trained with perturbed user click feedback. The proposed method eliminates explicit confidence set construction and the associated computational overhead, which enables the online neural rankers training to be efficiently executed in practice with theoretical guarantees. Extensive comparisons with an array of state-of-the-art OL2R algorithms on two public learning to rank benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness and computational efficiency of our proposed neural OL2R solution. 
    more » « less
  3. Explanations in a recommender system assist users make informed decisions among a set of recommended items. Extensive research attention has been devoted to generate natural language explanations to depict how the recommendations are generated and why the users should pay attention to them. However, due to different limitations of those solutions, e.g., template-based or generation-based, it is hard to make the explanations easily perceivable, reliable, and personalized at the same time. In this work, we develop a graph attentive neural network model that seamlessly integrates user, item, attributes and sentences for extraction-based explanation. The attributes of items are selected as the intermediary to facilitate message passing for user-item specific evaluation of sentence relevance. And to balance individual sentence relevance, overall attribute coverage and content redundancy, we solve an integer linear programming problem to make the final selection of sentences. Extensive empirical evaluations against a set of state-of-the-art baseline methods on two benchmark review datasets demonstrated the generation quality of proposed solution. 
    more » « less
  4. null (Ed.)
    Crowdsourcing provides an efficient label collection schema for supervised machine learning. However, to control annotation cost, each instance in the crowdsourced data is typically annotated by a small number of annotators. This creates a sparsity issue and limits the quality of machine learning models trained on such data. In this paper, we study how to handle sparsity in crowdsourced data using data augmentation. Specifically, we propose to directly learn a classifier by augmenting the raw sparse annotations. We implement two principles of high-quality augmentation using Generative Adversarial Networks: 1) the generated annotations should follow the distribution of authentic ones, which is measured by a discriminator; 2) the generated annotations should have high mutual information with the ground-truth labels, which is measured by an auxiliary network. Extensive experiments and comparisons against an array of state-of-the-art learning from crowds methods on three real-world datasets proved the effectiveness of our data augmentation framework. It shows the potential of our algorithm for low-budget crowdsourcing in general. 
    more » « less
  5. null (Ed.)
    Sequential recommendation is the task of predicting the next items for users based on their interaction history. Modeling the dependence of the next action on the past actions accurately is crucial to this problem. Moreover, sequential recommendation often faces serious sparsity of item-to-item transitions in a user's action sequence, which limits the practical utility of such solutions. To tackle these challenges, we propose a Category-aware Collaborative Sequential Recommender. Our preliminary statistical tests demonstrate that the in-category item-to-item transitions are often much stronger indicators of the next items than the general item-to-item transitions observed in the original sequence. Our method makes use of item category in two ways. First, the recommender utilizes item category to organize a user's own actions to enhance dependency modeling based on her own past actions. It utilizes self-attention to capture in-category transition patterns, and determines which of the in-category transition patterns to consider based on the categories of recent actions. Second, the recommender utilizes the item category to retrieve users with similar in-category preferences to enhance collaborative learning across users, and thus conquer sparsity. It utilizes attention to incorporate in-category transition patterns from the retrieved users for the target user. Extensive experiments on two large datasets prove the effectiveness of our solution against an extensive list of state-of-the-art sequential recommendation models. 
    more » « less
  6. null (Ed.)
    Crowdsourcing provides a practical way to obtain large amounts of labeled data at a low cost. However, the annotation quality of annotators varies considerably, which imposes new challenges in learning a high-quality model from the crowdsourced annotations. In this work, we provide a new perspective to decompose annotation noise into common noise and individual noise and differentiate the source of confusion based on instance difficulty and annotator expertise on a per-instance-annotator basis. We realize this new crowdsourcing model by an end-to-end learning solution with two types of noise adaptation layers: one is shared across annotators to capture their commonly shared confusions, and the other one is pertaining to each annotator to realize individual confusion. To recognize the source of noise in each annotation, we use an auxiliary network to choose from the two noise adaptation layers with respect to both instances and annotators. Extensive experiments on both synthesized and real-world benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed common noise adaptation solution. 
    more » « less
  7. Smart Building Technologies hold promise for better livability for residents and lower energy footprints. Yet, the rollout of these technologies, from demand response controls to fault detection and diagnosis, significantly lags behind and is impeded by the current practice of manual identification of sensing point relationships, e.g., how equipment is connected or which sensors are co-located in the same space. This manual process is still error-prone, albeit costly and laborious.We study relation inference among sensor time series. Our key insight is that, as equipment is connected or sensors co-locate in the same physical environment, they are affected by the same real-world events, e.g., a fan turning on or a person entering the room, thus exhibiting correlated changes in their time series data. To this end, we develop a deep metric learning solution that first converts the primitive sensor time series to the frequency domain, and then optimizes a representation of sensors that encodes their relations. Built upon the learned representation, our solution pinpoints the relationships among sensors via solving a combinatorial optimization problem. Extensive experiments on real-world buildings demonstrate the effectiveness of our solution. 
    more » « less
  8. A key barrier to applying any smart technology to a building is the requirement of locating and connecting to the necessary resources among the thousands of sensing and control points, i.e., the metadata mapping problem. Existing solutions depend on exhaustive manual annotation of sensor metadata - a laborious, costly, and hardly scalable process. To reduce the amount of manual effort required, this paper presents a multi-oracle selective sampling framework to leverage noisy labels from information sources with unknown reliability such as existing buildings, which we refer to as weak oracles, for metadata mapping. This framework involves an interactive process, where a small set of sensor instances are progressively selected and labeled for it to learn how to aggregate the noisy labels as well as to predict sensor types. Two key challenges arise in designing the framework, namely, weak oracle reliability estimation and instance selection for querying. To address the first challenge, we develop a clustering-based approach for weak oracle reliability estimation to capitalize on the observation that weak oracles perform differently in different groups of instances. For the second challenge, we propose a disagreement-based query selection strategy to combine the potential effect of a labeled instance on both reducing classifier uncertainty and improving the quality of label aggregation. We evaluate our solution on a large collection of real-world building sensor data from 5 buildings with more than 11, 000 sensors of 18 different types. The experiment results validate the effectiveness of our solution, which outperforms a set of state-of-the-art baselines. 
    more » « less