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  1. Adversarial computations are a widely studied class of computations where resource-bounded probabilistic adversaries have access to oracles, i.e., probabilistic procedures with private state. These computations arise routinely in several domains, including security, privacy and machine learning. In this paper, we develop program logics for reasoning about adversarial computations in a higher-order setting. Our logics are built on top of a simply typed λ-calculus extended with a graded monad for probabilities and state. The grading is used to model and restrict the memory footprint and the cost (in terms of oracle calls) of computations. Under this view, an adversary is a higher-order expression that expects as arguments the code of its oracles. We develop unary program logics for reasoning about error probabilities and expected values, and a relational logic for reasoning about coupling-based properties. All logics feature rules for adversarial computations, and yield guarantees that are valid for all adversaries that satisfy a fixed resource policy. We prove the soundness of the logics in the category of quasi-Borel spaces, using a general notion of graded predicate liftings, and we use logical relations over graded predicate liftings to establish the soundness of proof rules for adversaries. We illustrate the working of our logics with simple but illustrative examples. 
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  2. Differential privacy offers a formal framework for reasoning about the privacy and accuracy of computations on private data. It also offers a rich set of building blocks for constructing private data analyses. When carefully calibrated, these analyses simultaneously guarantee the privacy of the individuals contributing their data, and the accuracy of the data analysis results, inferring useful properties about the population. The compositional nature of differential privacy has motivated the design and implementation of several programming languages to ease the implementation of differentially private analyses. Even though these programming languages provide support for reasoning about privacy, most of them disregard reasoning about the accuracy of data analyses. To overcome this limitation, we present DPella, a programming framework providing data analysts with support for reasoning about privacy, accuracy, and their trade-offs. The distinguishing feature of DPella is a novel component that statically tracks the accuracy of different data analyses. To provide tight accuracy estimations, this component leverages taint analysis for automatically inferring statistical independence of the different noise quantities added for guaranteeing privacy. We evaluate our approach by implementing several classical queries from the literature and showing how data analysts can calibrate the privacy parameters to meet the accuracy requirements, and vice versa. 
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  3. null (Ed.)
    This paper presents λ-amor, a new type-theoretic framework for amortized cost analysis of higher-order functional programs and shows that existing type systems for cost analysis can be embedded in it. λ-amor introduces a new modal type for representing potentials – costs that have been accounted for, but not yet incurred, which are central to amortized analysis. Additionally, λ-amor relies on standard type-theoretic concepts like affineness, refinement types and an indexed cost monad. λ-amor is proved sound using a rather simple logical relation. We embed two existing type systems for cost analysis in λ-amor showing that, despite its simplicity, λ-amor can simulate cost analysis for different evaluation strategies (call-by-name and call-by-value), in different styles (effect-based and coeffect-based), and with or without amortization. One of the embeddings also implies that λ-amor is relatively complete for all terminating PCF programs. 
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