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  1. Frangi, A. (Ed.)
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 8, 2024
  2. Hyperbolic neural networks have been popular in the re- cent past due to their ability to represent hierarchical data sets effectively and efficiently. The challenge in develop- ing these networks lies in the nonlinearity of the embed- ding space namely, the Hyperbolic space. Hyperbolic space is a homogeneous Riemannian manifold of the Lorentz group which is a semi-Riemannian manifold, i.e. a mani- fold equipped with an indefinite metric. Most existing meth- ods (with some exceptions) use local linearization to de- fine a variety of operations paralleling those used in tra- ditional deep neural networks in Euclidean spaces. In this paper, we present a novel fully hyperbolic neural network which uses the concept of projections (embeddings) fol- lowed by an intrinsic aggregation and a nonlinearity all within the hyperbolic space. The novelty here lies in the projection which is designed to project data on to a lower- dimensional embedded hyperbolic space and hence leads to a nested hyperbolic space representation independently useful for dimensionality reduction. The main theoretical contribution is that the proposed embedding is proved to be isometric and equivariant under the Lorentz transforma- tions, which are the natural isometric transformations in hyperbolic spaces. This projection is computationally effi- cient since it can be expressed by simple linear operations, and, due to the aforementioned equivariance property, it al- lows for weight sharing. The nested hyperbolic space rep- resentation is the core component of our network and there- fore, we first compare this representation – independent of the network – with other dimensionality reduction methods such as tangent PCA, principal geodesic analysis (PGA) and HoroPCA. Based on this equivariant embedding, we develop a novel fully hyperbolic graph convolutional neural network architecture to learn the parameters of the projec- tion. Finally, we present experiments demonstrating com- parative performance of our network on several publicly available data sets. 
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  3. Feragen, Aasa ; Sommer, Stefan ; Schnabel, Julia ; Nielsen, Mads (Ed.)
  4. Feragen, A ; Sommer, S ; Schnabel, J ; Nielsen, M (Ed.)
  5. Feragen, A ; Sommer, S ; Schnabel, J ; Nielsen, M (Ed.)
  6. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA) are fundamental methods in machine learning for dimensionality reduction. The former is a technique for finding this approximation in finite dimensions and the latter is often in an infinite dimensional Reproducing Kernel Hilbert-space (RKHS). In this paper, we present a geometric framework for computing the principal linear subspaces in both situations as well as for the robust PCA case, that amounts to computing the intrinsic average on the space of all subspaces: the Grassmann manifold. Points on this manifold are defined as the subspaces spanned by K -tuples of observations. The intrinsic Grassmann average of these subspaces are shown to coincide with the principal components of the observations when they are drawn from a Gaussian distribution. We show similar results in the RKHS case and provide an efficient algorithm for computing the projection onto the this average subspace. The result is a method akin to KPCA which is substantially faster. Further, we present a novel online version of the KPCA using our geometric framework. Competitive performance of all our algorithms are demonstrated on a variety of real and synthetic data sets. 
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