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  1. Abstract

    Volcanic eruptions are energetic events driven by the imbalance of magmatic forces. The magnitudes of these forces remain poorly constrained because they operate in regions that are inaccessible, either underground or dangerous to approach. New techniques are needed to quantify the processes that drive eruptions and to probe magma storage conditions. Here we present X‐ray microdiffraction measurements of volcanic stress imparted as lattice distortions to the crystal cargo of magma from Yellowstone and Long Valley eruptions. Elevated residual stresses between 100 and 300 MPa are preserved in erupted quartz. Multiple volcanic forces could be culpable for the deformation so we analyzed crystals from pyroclastic falls, pyroclastic density currents, and effusive lavas. Stresses are preserved in all quartz but cannot be attributed to differences in eruption style. Instead, lattice deformation likely preserves an in situ measurement of the deviatoric stresses required for the brittle failure of viscous, crystal‐bearing glass during ascent.

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  2. Abstract

    Rocks are heterogeneous multiscale porous media: two rock samples with identical bulk properties can vary widely in microstructure. The advent of digital rock technology and modern 3‐D printing provides new opportunities to replicate rocks. However, the inherent trade‐off between imaging resolution and sample size limits the scales over which microstructure and macrostructure can be identified and related to each other. Here, we develop a multiscale digital rock construction strategy by combining X‐ray computed microtomography and focused‐ion beam (FIB)‐scanning electron microscope (SEM) images, and we apply the technique to a tight sandstone. The computed tomography (CT) scanning images characterize macroscale pore structures, while the FIB‐SEM images capture microscale pore textures. The FIB‐SEM images are then coupled to CT images via a template‐matching algorithm and superposition. Bulk properties, including porosity and pore and throat size distribution, can be recovered with this approach. Permeability prediction with a pore network model for the largest connected pore network are 3 orders and 1 order of magnitude greater than the bulk rock measured value using the CT‐only and the SEM‐CT coupled images, respectively.

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  3. Abstract Hollow reentrants in quartz phenocrysts from Yellowstone (western United States) caldera’s Lava Creek Tuff are preserved vestiges of bubbles in the supereruption’s pre-eruptive magma reservoir. We characterized the reentrants using a combination of petrographic techniques, synchrotron X-ray microtomography, and cathodoluminescence imagery. One or more reentrants occur in ∼20% of quartz, and up to ∼90% of those reentrants are hollow. The earliest-erupted parts of the Lava Creek Tuff have the most empty reentrants. The hollow reentrants provide direct, physical evidence for volatile saturation, exsolution, and retention in a magma reservoir. Quartz-melt surface tension permits bubbles to attach to quartz only when bubbles have been able to nucleate and grow in the melt. Prior to eruption, the Lava Creek Tuff existed as a bubbly, volatile-saturated magma reservoir. The exsolved volatiles increased magma compressibility, helping to prevent the ever-accumulating magma from reaching a critical, eruptive overpressure until it reached a tremendous volume. 
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