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  1. Abstract

    Production of stable multidimensional solitary waves is a grand challenge in modern science. Steering their propagation is an even harder problem. Here we demonstrate three-dimensional solitary waves in a nematic, trajectories of which can be steered by the electric field in a plane perpendicular to the field. The steering does not modify the properties of the background that remains uniform. These localized waves, called director bullets, are topologically unprotected multidimensional solitons of (3 + 2)D type that show fore-aft and right-left asymmetry with respect to the background molecular director; the symmetry is controlled by the field. Besides adding a whole dimension to the propagation direction and enabling controlled steering, the solitons can lead to applications such as targeted delivery of information and micro-cargo.

     
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  2. Summary

    The sensitivity of eigenvalues of structured matrices under general or structured perturbations of the matrix entries has been thoroughly studied in the literature. Error bounds are available, and the pseudospectrum can be computed to gain insight. Few investigations have focused on analyzing the sensitivity of eigenvectors under general or structured perturbations. This paper discusses this sensitivity for tridiagonal Toeplitz and Toeplitz‐type matrices.

     
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  3. Abstract

    Electric field-induced collective reorientation of nematic molecules is of importance for fundamental science and practical applications. This reorientation is either homogeneous over the area of electrodes, as in displays, or periodically modulated, as in electroconvection. The question is whether spatially localized three-dimensional solitary waves of molecular reorientation could be created. Here we demonstrate that the electric field can produce particle-like propagating solitary waves representing self-trapped “bullets” of oscillating molecular director. These director bullets lack fore-aft symmetry and move with very high speed perpendicularly to the electric field and to the initial alignment direction. The bullets are true solitons that preserve spatially confined shapes and survive collisions. The solitons are topologically equivalent to the uniform state and have no static analogs, thus exhibiting a particle–wave duality. Their shape, speed, and interactions depend strongly on the material parameters, which opens the door for a broad range of future studies.

     
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  4. Abstract Bregman-type iterative methods have received considerable attention in recent years due to their ease of implementation and the high quality of the computed solutions they deliver. However, these iterative methods may require a large number of iterations and this reduces their usefulness. This paper develops a computationally attractive linearized Bregman algorithm by projecting the problem to be solved into an appropriately chosen low-dimensional Krylov subspace. The projection reduces the computational effort required for each iteration. A variant of this solution method, in which nonnegativity of each computed iterate is imposed, also is described. Extensive numerical examples illustrate the performance of the proposed methods. 
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  5. null (Ed.)
    Active matter composed of self-propelled interacting units holds a major promise for the extraction of useful work from its seemingly chaotic dynamics. Streamlining active matter is especially important at the microscale, where the viscous forces prevail over inertia and transport requires a non-reciprocal motion. Here we report that microscopic active droplets representing aqueous dispersions of swimming bacteria Bacillus subtilis become unidirectionally motile when placed in an inactive nematic liquid-crystal medium. Random motion of bacteria inside the droplet is rectified into a directional self-locomotion of the droplet by the polar director structure that the droplet creates in the surrounding nematic through anisotropic molecular interactions at its surface. Droplets without active swimmers show no net displacement. The trajectory of the active droplet can be predesigned by patterning the molecular orientation of the nematic. The effect demonstrates that broken spatial symmetry of the medium can be the reason for and the means to control directional microscale transport. 
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