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  1. Abstract

    The Dicke model—a paradigmatic example of superradiance in quantum optics—describes an ensemble of atoms which are collectively coupled to a leaky cavity mode. As a result of the cooperative nature of these interactions, the system’s dynamics is captured by the behavior of a single mean-field, collective spin. In this mean-field limit, it has recently been shown that the interplay between photon losses and periodic driving of light–matter coupling can lead to time-crystalline-like behavior of the collective spin (Gonget al2018Phys. Rev. Lett.120040404). In this work, we investigate whether such a Dicke time crystal (TC) is stable to perturbations that explicitlymore »break the mean-field solvability of the conventional Dicke model. In particular, we consider the addition of short-range interactions between the atoms which breaks the collective coupling and leads to complex many-body dynamics. In this context, the interplay between periodic driving, dissipation and interactions yields a rich set of dynamical responses, including long-lived and metastable Dicke-TCs, where losses can cool down the many-body heating resulting from the continuous pump of energy from the periodic drive. Specifically, when the additional short-range interactions are ferromagnetic, we observe time crystalline behavior at non-perturbative values of the coupling strength, suggesting the possible existence of stable dynamical order in a driven-dissipative quantum many-body system. These findings illustrate the rich nature of novel dynamical responses with many-body character in quantum optics platforms.

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  2. Abstract

    The best upper limit for the electron electric dipole moment was recently set by the ACME collaboration. This experiment measures an electron spin-precession in a cold beam of ThO molecules in their metastableH(3Δ1)state. Improvement in the statistical and systematic uncertainties is possible with more efficient use of molecules from the source and better magnetometry in the experiment, respectively. Here, we report measurements of several relevant properties of the long-livedQ(3Δ2)state of ThO, and show that this state is a very useful resource for both these purposes.more »TheQstate lifetime is long enough that its decay during the time of flight in the ACME beam experiment is negligible. The large electric dipole moment measured for theQstate, giving rise to a large linear Stark shift, is ideal for an electrostatic lens that increases the fraction of molecules detected downstream. The measured magnetic moment of theQstate is also large enough to be used as a sensitive co-magnetometer in ACME. Finally, we show that theQstate has a large transition dipole moment to theC(1Π1)state, which allows for efficient population transfer between the ground stateX(1Σ+)and theQstate viaXCQStimulated Raman Adiabatic Passage (STIRAP). We demonstrate 90 % STIRAP transfer efficiency. In the course of these measurements, we also determine the magnetic moment ofCstate, theXCtransition dipole moment, and branching ratios of decays from theCstate.

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  3. Abstract In WSe 2 monolayers, strain has been used to control the energy of excitons, induce funneling, and realize single-photon sources. Here, we developed a technique for probing the dynamics of free excitons in nanoscale strain landscapes in such monolayers. A nanosculpted tapered optical fiber is used to simultaneously generate strain and probe the near-field optical response of WSe 2 monolayers at 5 K. When the monolayer is pushed by the fiber, its lowest energy states shift by as much as 390 meV (>20% of the bandgap of a WSe 2 monolayer). Polarization and lifetime measurements of these red-shifting peaks indicate theymore »originate from dark excitons. We conclude free dark excitons are funneled to high-strain regions during their long lifetime and are the principal participants in drift and diffusion at cryogenic temperatures. This insight supports proposals on the origin of single-photon sources in WSe 2 and demonstrates a route towards exciton traps for exciton condensation.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  4. Realizing quantum speedup for practically relevant, computationally hard problems is a central challenge in quantum information science. Using Rydberg atom arrays with up to 289 qubits in two spatial dimensions, we experimentally investigate quantum algorithms for solving the Maximum Independent Set problem. We use a hardware-efficient encoding associated with Rydberg blockade, realize closed-loop optimization to test several variational algorithms, and subsequently apply them to systematically explore a class of graphs with programmable connectivity. We find the problem hardness is controlled by the solution degeneracy and number of local minima, and experimentally benchmark the quantum algorithm’s performance against classical simulated annealing.more »On the hardest graphs, we observe a superlinear quantum speedup in finding exact solutions in the deep circuit regime and analyze its origins.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 5, 2023
  5. Abstract The ability to engineer parallel, programmable operations between desired qubits within a quantum processor is key for building scalable quantum information systems 1,2 . In most state-of-the-art approaches, qubits interact locally, constrained by the connectivity associated with their fixed spatial layout. Here we demonstrate a quantum processor with dynamic, non-local connectivity, in which entangled qubits are coherently transported in a highly parallel manner across two spatial dimensions, between layers of single- and two-qubit operations. Our approach makes use of neutral atom arrays trapped and transported by optical tweezers; hyperfine states are used for robust quantum information storage, and excitationmore »into Rydberg states is used for entanglement generation 3–5 . We use this architecture to realize programmable generation of entangled graph states, such as cluster states and a seven-qubit Steane code state 6,7 . Furthermore, we shuttle entangled ancilla arrays to realize a surface code state with thirteen data and six ancillary qubits 8 and a toric code state on a torus with sixteen data and eight ancillary qubits 9 . Finally, we use this architecture to realize a hybrid analogue–digital evolution 2 and use it for measuring entanglement entropy in quantum simulations 10–12 , experimentally observing non-monotonic entanglement dynamics associated with quantum many-body scars 13,14 . Realizing a long-standing goal, these results provide a route towards scalable quantum processing and enable applications ranging from simulation to metrology.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 21, 2023
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  8. Short-range properties of Na–NaLi enable precise control of chemical reactivity using magnetic fields and quantum interference.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 4, 2023
  9. The three-level system in a diamond nitrogen vacancy center is used to engineer a tensor monopole.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 4, 2023
  10. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023