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  1. Abstract

    Real‐time tsunami prediction is necessary for tsunami forecasting. Although tsunami forecasting based on a precomputed tsunami simulation database is fast, it is difficult to respond to earthquakes that are not in the database. As the computation speed increases, various alternatives based on physics‐based models have been proposed. However, physics‐based models still require several minutes to simulate tsunamis and can have numerical stability issues that potentially make them unreliable for use in forecasting—particularly in the case of near‐field tsunamis. This paper presents a data‐driven model called the tsunami runup response function for finite faults (TRRF‐FF) model that can predict alongshore near‐field tsunami runup distribution from heterogeneous earthquake slip distribution in less than a second. Once the TRRF‐FF model is trained and calibrated based on a discrete set of tsunami simulations, the TRRF‐FF model can predict alongshore tsunami runup distribution from any combination of finite fault parameters. The TRRF‐FF model treats the leading‐order contribution and the residual part of the alongshore tsunami runup distribution separately. The interaction between finite faults is modeled based on the leading‐order alongshore tsunami runup distribution. We validated the TRRF‐FF modeling approach with more than 200 synthetic tsunami scenarios in eastern Japan. We further explored the performance of the TRRF‐FF model by applying it to the 2011 Tohoku (Japan) tsunami event. The results show that the TRRF‐FF model is more flexible, occupies much less storage space than a precomputed tsunami simulation database, and is more rapid and reliable than real‐time physics‐based numerical simulation.

     
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  2. Abstract

    Understanding a tsunami source and its impact is vital to assess a tsunami hazard. Thanks to the efforts of the tsunami survey teams, high‐quality tsunami run‐up data exist for contemporary events. Still, it has not been widely used to infer a tsunami source and its impact mainly due to the computational burden of the tsunami forward model. In this study, we propose a TRRF‐INV (Tsunami Run‐up Response Function‐based INVersion) model that can provide probabilistic estimates of a near‐field tsunami source and tsunami run‐up distribution from a small number of run‐up records. We tested the TRRF‐INV model with synthetic tsunami scenarios in northern Chile and applied it to the 2014 Iquique, Chile, tsunami event as a case study. The results demonstrated that the TRRF‐INV model can provide a reasonable tsunami source estimate to first order and estimate tsunami run‐up distribution well. Moreover, the case‐study results agree well with the United States Geological Survey report and the global Centroid Moment Tensor solution. We also analyzed the performance of the TRRF‐INV model depending on the number and the uncertainty of run‐up records. We believe that the TRRF‐INV model has the potential for supporting accurate hazard assessment by (1) providing new insights from tsunami run‐up records into the tsunami source and its impact, (2) using the TRRF‐INV model as a tool to support existing tsunami inversion models, and (3) estimating a tsunami source and its impact for ancient events where no data other than estimated run‐up from sediment deposit data exist.

     
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  3. Abstract

    In hazard and disaster contexts, human‐centered approaches are promising for interdisciplinary research since humans and communities feature prominently in many definitions of disaster and the built environment is designed and constructed by humans to serve their needs. With a human‐centered approach, the decision‐making agent becomes a critical consideration. This article discusses and illustrates the need for alignment of decision‐making agents, time, and space for interdisciplinary research on hurricanes, particularly evacuation and the immediate aftermath. We specifically consider the fields of sociobehavioral science, transportation engineering, power systems engineering, and decision support systems in this context. These disciplines have historically adopted different decision‐making agents, ranging from individuals to households to utilities and government agencies. The fields largely converged to the local level for studies’ spatial scales, with some extensions based on the physical construction and operation of some systems. Greater discrepancy across the fields is found in the frequency of data collection, which ranges from one time (e.g., surveys) to continuous monitoring systems (e.g., sensors). Resolving these differences is important for the success of interdisciplinary teams in protective‐action‐related disaster research.

     
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  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  5. In this study, we investigate the compatibility of specific vulnerability indicators and heat exposure data and the suitability of spatial temperature-related data at a range of resolutions, to represent spatial temperature variations within cities using data from Atlanta, Georgia. For this purpose, we include various types of known and theoretically based vulnerability indicators such as specific street-level landscape features and urban form metrics, population-based and zone-based variables as predictors, and different measures of temperature, including air temperature (as vector-based data), land surface temperature (at resolution ranges from 30 m to 305 m), and mean radiant temperature (at resolution ranges from 1 m to 39 m) as dependent variables. Using regression analysis, we examine how different sets of predictors and spatial resolutions can explain spatial heat variation. Our findings suggest that the lower resolution of land surface temperature data, up to 152 m, and mean radiant temperature data, up to 15 m, may still satisfactorily represent spatial urban temperature variation caused by landscape elements. The results of this study have important implications for heat-related policies and planning by providing insights into the appropriate sets of data and relevant resolution of temperature measurements for representing spatial urban heat variations. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024