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  1. Abstract

    Due to its specificity, fluorescence microscopy has become a quintessential imaging tool in cell biology. However, photobleaching, phototoxicity, and related artifacts continue to limit fluorescence microscopy’s utility. Recently, it has been shown that artificial intelligence (AI) can transform one form of contrast into another. We present phase imaging with computational specificity (PICS), a combination of quantitative phase imaging and AI, which provides information about unlabeled live cells with high specificity. Our imaging system allows for automatic training, while inference is built into the acquisition software and runs in real-time. Applying the computed fluorescence maps back to the quantitative phasemore »imaging (QPI) data, we measured the growth of both nuclei and cytoplasm independently, over many days, without loss of viability. Using a QPI method that suppresses multiple scattering, we measured the dry mass content of individual cell nuclei within spheroids. In its current implementation, PICS offers a versatile quantitative technique for continuous simultaneous monitoring of individual cellular components in biological applications where long-term label-free imaging is desirable.

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  2. Abstract

    Multiple scattering and absorption limit the depth at which biological tissues can be imaged with light. In thick unlabeled specimens, multiple scattering randomizes the phase of the field and absorption attenuates light that travels long optical paths. These obstacles limit the performance of transmission imaging. To mitigate these challenges, we developed an epi-illumination gradient light interference microscope (epi-GLIM) as a label-free phase imaging modality applicable to bulk or opaque samples. Epi-GLIM enables studying turbid structures that are hundreds of microns thick and otherwise opaque to transmitted light. We demonstrate this approach with a variety of man-made and biological samplesmore »that are incompatible with imaging in a transmission geometry: semiconductors wafers, specimens on opaque and birefringent substrates, cells in microplates, and bulk tissues. We demonstrate that the epi-GLIM data can be used to solve the inverse scattering problem and reconstruct the tomography of single cells and model organisms.

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  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 21, 2023
  5. Neuropeptides (NPs), a unique class of neuronal signaling molecules, participate in a variety of physiological processes and diseases. Quantitative measurements of NPs provide valuable information regarding how these molecules are differentially regulated in a multitude of neurological, metabolic, and mental disorders. Mass spectrometry (MS) has evolved to become a powerful technique for measuring trace levels of NPs in complex biological tissues and individual cells using both targeted and exploratory approaches. There are inherent challenges to measuring NPs, including their wide endogenous concentration range, transport and postmortem degradation, complex sample matrices, and statistical processing of MS data required for accurate NPmore »quantitation. This review highlights techniques developed to address these challenges and presents an overview of quantitative MS-based measurement approaches for NPs, including the incorporation of separation methods for high-throughput analysis, MS imaging for spatial measurements, and methods for NP quantitation in single neurons.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 13, 2023
  6. Metabolomics, the study of metabolites present in biological samples, can provide a global view of sample state as well as insights into biological changes caused by disease or environmental interactions. Mass spectrometry (MS) is commonly used for metabolomics analysis given its high-throughput capabilities, high sensitivity, and capacity to identify multiple compounds in complex samples simultaneously. MS can be coupled to separation methods that can handle small volumes, making it well suited for analyzing the metabolome of organoids, miniaturized three-dimensional aggregates of stem cells that model in vivo organs. Organoids are being used in research efforts to study human disease andmore »development, and in the design of personalized drug treatments. For organoid models to be useful, they need to recapitulate morphological and chemical aspects, such as the metabolome, of the parent tissue. This review highlights the separation- and imaging-based MS-based metabolomics methods that have been used to analyze the chemical contents of organoids. Future perspectives on how MS techniques can be optimized to determine the accuracy of organoid models and expand the field of organoid research are also discussed.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 30, 2023
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 15, 2022
  9. Abstract Retrieving electrical impedance maps at the nanoscale rapidly via nondestructive inspection with a high signal-to-noise ratio is an unmet need, likely to impact various applications from biomedicine to energy conversion. In this study, we develop a multimodal functional imaging instrument that is characterized by the dual capability of impedance mapping and phase quantitation, high spatial resolution, and low temporal noise. To achieve this, we advance a quantitative phase imaging system, referred to as epi-magnified image spatial spectrum microscopy combined with electrical actuation, to provide complementary maps of the optical path and electrical impedance. We demonstrate our system with high-resolutionmore »maps of optical path differences and electrical impedance variations that can distinguish nanosized, semi-transparent, structured coatings involving two materials with relatively similar electrical properties. We map heterogeneous interfaces corresponding to an indium tin oxide layer exposed by holes with diameters as small as ~550 nm in a titanium (dioxide) over-layer deposited on a glass support. We show that electrical modulation during the phase imaging of a macro-electrode is decisive for retrieving electrical impedance distributions with submicron spatial resolution and beyond the limitations of electrode-based technologies (surface or scanning technologies). The findings, which are substantiated by a theoretical model that fits the experimental data very well enable achieving electro-optical maps with high spatial and temporal resolutions. The virtues and limitations of the novel optoelectrochemical method that provides grounds for a wider range of electrically modulated optical methods for measuring the electric field locally are critically discussed.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  10. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022