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  1. Abstract Multi-functional thin films of boron (B) doped Cr 2 O 3 exhibit voltage-controlled and nonvolatile Néel vector reorientation in the absence of an applied magnetic field, H . Toggling of antiferromagnetic states is demonstrated in prototype device structures at CMOS compatible temperatures between 300 and 400 K. The boundary magnetization associated with the Néel vector orientation serves as state variable which is read via magnetoresistive detection in a Pt Hall bar adjacent to the B:Cr 2 O 3 film. Switching of the Hall voltage between zero and non-zero values implies Néel vector rotation by 90 degrees. Combined magnetometry, spin resolved inverse photoemission, electric transport and scanning probe microscopy measurements reveal B-dependent T N and resistivity enhancement, spin-canting, anisotropy reduction, dynamic polarization hysteresis and gate voltage dependent orientation of boundary magnetization. The combined effect enables H  = 0, voltage controlled, nonvolatile Néel vector rotation at high-temperature. Theoretical modeling estimates switching speeds of about 100 ps making B:Cr 2 O 3 a promising multifunctional single-phase material for energy efficient nonvolatile CMOS compatible memory applications.
  2. Theoretical and experimental investigations of various exfoliated samples taken from layered In4Se3 crystals are performed. In spite of the ionic character of interlayer interactions in In4Se3 and hence much higher calculated cleavage energies compared to graphite, it is possible to produce fewnanometer- thick flakes of In4Se3 by mechanical exfoliation of its bulk crystals. The In4Se3 flakes exfoliated on Si/SiO2 have anisotropic electronic properties and exhibit field-effect electron mobilities of about 50 cm2 V−1 s−1 at room temperature, which are comparable with other popular transition metal chalcogenide (TMC) electronic materials, such as MoS2 and TiS3. In4Se3 devices exhibit a visible range photoresponse on a timescale of less than 30 ms. The photoresponse depends on the polarization of the excitation light consistent with symmetry-dependent band structure calculations for the most expected ac cleavage plane. These results demonstrate that mechanical exfoliation of layered ionic In4Se3 crystals is possible, while the fast anisotropic photoresponse makes In4Se3 a competitive electronic material, in the TMC family, for emerging optoelectronic device applications.
  3. Nonvolatile, molecular multiferroic devices have now been demonstrated, but it is worth giving some consideration to the issue of whether such devices could be a competitive alternative for solid-state nonvolatile memory. For the Fe (II) spin crossover complex [Fe{H2B(pz)2}2(bipy)], where pz = tris(pyrazol-1-yl)-borohydride and bipy = 2,2′-bipyridine, voltage-controlled isothermal changes in the electronic structure and spin state have been demonstrated and are accompanied by changes in conductance. Higher conductance is seen with [Fe{H2B(pz)2}2(bipy)] in the high spin state, while lower conductance occurs for the low spin state. Plausibly, there is the potential here for low-cost molecular solid-state memory because the essential molecular thin films are easily fabricated. However, successful device fabrication does not mean a device that has a practical value. Here, we discuss the progress and challenges yet facing the fabrication of molecular multiferroic devices, which could be considered competitive to silicon.