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  1. Wearables are poised to transform health and wellness through automation of cost-effective, objective, and real-time health monitoring. However, machine learning models for these systems are designed based on labeled data collected, and feature representations engineered, in controlled environments. This approach has limited scalability of wearables because (i) collecting and labeling sufficiently large amounts of sensor data is a labor-intensive and expensive process; and (ii) wearables are deployed in highly dynamic environments of the end-users whose context undergoes consistent changes. We introduce TransNet , a deep learning framework that minimizes the costly process of data labeling, feature engineering, and algorithm retraining by constructing a scalable computational approach. TransNet learns general and reusable features in lower layers of the framework and quickly reconfigures the underlying models from a small number of labeled instances in a new domain, such as when the system is adopted by a new user or when a previously unseen event is to be added to event vocabulary of the system. Utilizing TransNet on four activity datasets, TransNet achieves an average accuracy of 88.1% in cross-subject learning scenarios using only one labeled instance for each activity class. This performance improves to an accuracy of 92.7% with five labeled instances.
  2. Continual (sequential) training and multitask (simultaneous) training are often attempting to solve the same overall objective: to find a solution that performs well on all considered tasks. The main difference is in the training regimes, where continual learning can only have access to one task at a time, which for neural networks typically leads to catastrophic forgetting. That is, the solution found for a subsequent task does not perform well on the previous ones anymore. However, the relationship between the different minima that the two training regimes arrive at is not well understood. What sets them apart? Is there a local structure that could explain the difference in performance achieved by the two different schemes? Motivated by recent work showing that different minima of the same task are typically connected by very simple curves of low error, we investigate whether multitask and continual solutions are similarly connected. We empirically find that indeed such connectivity can be reliably achieved and, more interestingly, it can be done by a linear path, conditioned on having the same initialization for both. We thoroughly analyze this observation and discuss its significance for the continual learning process. Furthermore, we exploit this finding to propose an effectivemore »algorithm that constrains the sequentially learned minima to behave as the multitask solution. We show that our method outperforms several state of the art continual learning algorithms on various vision benchmarks.« less
  3. Recent years have witnessed a growing body of research on autonomous activity recognition models for use in deployment of mobile systems in new settings such as when a wearable system is adopted by a new user. Current research, however, lacks comprehensive frameworks for transfer learning. Specifically, it lacks the ability to deal with partially available data in new settings. To address these limitations, we propose {\it OptiMapper}, a novel uninformed cross-subject transfer learning framework for activity recognition. OptiMapper is a combinatorial optimization framework that extracts abstract knowledge across subjects and utilizes this knowledge for developing a personalized and accurate activity recognition model in new subjects. To this end, a novel community-detection-based clustering of unlabeled data is proposed that uses the target user data to construct a network of unannotated sensor observations. The clusters of these target observations are then mapped onto the source clusters using a complete bipartite graph model. In the next step, the mapped labels are conditionally fused with the prediction of a base learner to create a personalized and labeled training dataset for the target user. We present two instantiations of OptiMapper. The first instantiation, which is applicable for transfer learning across domains with identical activity labels,more »performs a one-to-one bipartite mapping between clusters of the source and target users. The second instantiation performs optimal many-to-one mapping between the source clusters and those of the target. The many-to-one mapping allows us to find an optimal mapping even when the target dataset does not contain sufficient instances of all activity classes. We show that this type of cross-domain mapping can be formulated as a transportation problem and solved optimally. We evaluate our transfer learning techniques on several activity recognition datasets. Our results show that the proposed community detection approach can achieve, on average, 69%$ utilization of the datasets for clustering with an overall clustering accuracy of 87.5%. Our results also suggest that the proposed transfer learning algorithms can achieve up to 22.5% improvement in the activity recognition accuracy, compared to the state-of-the-art techniques. The experimental results also demonstrate high and sustained performance even in presence of partial data.« less
  4. With the recent advances in both machine learning and embedded systems research, the demand to deploy computational models for real-time execution on edge devices has increased substantially. Without deploying computational models on edge devices, the frequent transmission of sensor data to the cloud results in rapid battery draining due to the energy consumption of wireless data transmission. This rapid power dissipation leads to a considerable reduction in the battery lifetime of the system, therefore jeopardizing the real-world utility of smart devices. It is well-established that for difficult machine learning tasks, models with higher performance often require more computation power and thus are not power-efficient choices for deployment on edge devices. However, the trade-offs between performance and power consumption are not well studied. While numerous methods (e.g., model compression) have been developed to obtain an optimal model, these methods focus on improving the efficiency of a single model. In an entirely new direction, we introduce an effective method to find a combination of multiple models that are optimal in terms of power-efficiency and performance by solving an optimization problem in which both performance and power consumption are taken into account. Experimental results demonstrate that on the ImageNet dataset, we can achievemore »a 20% energy reduction with only 0.3% accuracy drop compared to Squeeze-and-Excitation Networks. Compared to a pruned convolutional neural network for human activity recognition, while consuming 1.7% less energy, our proposed policy achieves 1.3% higher accuracy.« less
  5. In recent years, neural networks have demonstrated an outstanding ability to achieve complex learning tasks across various domains. However, they suffer from the "catastrophic forgetting" problem when they face a sequence of learning tasks, where they forget the old ones as they learn new tasks. This problem is also highly related to the "stability-plasticity dilemma". The more plastic the network, the easier it can learn new tasks, but the faster it also forgets previous ones. Conversely, a stable network cannot learn new tasks as fast as a very plastic network. However, it is more reliable to preserve the knowledge it has learned from the previous tasks. Several solutions have been proposed to overcome the forgetting problem by making the neural network parameters more stable, and some of them have mentioned the significance of dropout in continual learning. However, their relationship has not been sufficiently studied yet. In this paper, we investigate this relationship and show that a stable network with dropout learns a gating mechanism such that for different tasks, different paths of the network are active. Our experiments show that the stability achieved by this implicit gating plays a very critical role in leading to performance comparable to ormore »better than other involved continual learning algorithms to overcome catastrophic forgetting.« less
  6. Catastrophic forgetting affects the training of neural networks, limiting their ability to learn multiple tasks sequentially. From the perspective of the well established plasticity-stability dilemma, neural networks tend to be overly plastic, lacking the stability necessary to prevent the forgetting of previous knowledge, which means that as learning progresses, networks tend to forget previously seen tasks. This phenomenon coined in the continual learning literature, has attracted much attention lately, and several families of approaches have been proposed with different degrees of success. However, there has been limited prior work extensively analyzing the impact that different training regimes -- learning rate, batch size, regularization method-- can have on forgetting. In this work, we depart from the typical approach of altering the learning algorithm to improve stability. Instead, we hypothesize that the geometrical properties of the local minima found for each task play an important role in the overall degree of forgetting. In particular, we study the effect of dropout, learning rate decay, and batch size on forming training regimes that widen the tasks' local minima and consequently, on helping it not to forget catastrophically. Our study provides practical insights to improve stability via simple yet effective techniques that outperform alternative baselines.
  7. Recent advances in machine learning and deep neural networks have led to the realization of many important applications in the area of personalized medicine. Whether it is detecting activities of daily living or analyzing images for cancerous cells, machine learning algorithms have become the dominant choice for such emerging applications. In particular, the state-of-the-art algorithms used for human activity recognition (HAR) using wearable inertial sensors utilize machine learning algorithms to detect health events and to make predictions from sensor data. Currently, however, there remains a gap in research on whether or not and how activity recognition algorithms may become the subject of adversarial attacks. In this paper, we take the first strides on (1) investigating methods of generating adversarial example in the context of HAR systems; (2) studying the vulnerability of activity recognition models to adversarial examples in feature and signal domain; and (3) investigating the effects of adversarial training on HAR systems. We introduce Adar, a novel computational framework for optimization-driven creation of adversarial examples in sensor-based activity recognition systems. Through extensive analysis based on real sensor data collected with human subjects, we found that simple evasion attacks are able to decrease the accuracy of a deep neural networkmore »from 95.1% to 3.4% and from 93.1% to 16.8% in the case of a convolutional neural network. With adversarial training, the robustness of the deep neural network increased on the adversarial examples by 49.1% in the worst case while the accuracy on clean samples decreased by 13.2%.« less
  8. While inferring human activities from sensors embedded in mobile devices using machine learning algorithms has been studied, current research relies primarily on sensor data that are collected in controlled settings often with healthy individuals. Currently, there exists a gap in research about how to design activity recognition models based on sensor data collected with chronically-ill individuals and in free-living environments. In this paper, we focus on a situation where free-living activity data are collected continuously, activity vocabulary (i.e., class labels) are not known as a priori, and sensor data are annotated by end-users through an active learning process. By analyzing sensor data collected in a clinical study involving patients with cardiovascular disease, we demonstrate significant challenges that arise while inferring physical activities in uncontrolled environments. In particular, we observe that activity labels that are distinct in syntax can refer to semantically-identical behaviors, resulting in a sparse label space. To construct a meaningful label space, we propose LabelMerger, a framework for restructuring the label space created through active learning in uncontrolled environments in preparation for training activity recognition models. LabelMerger combines the semantic meaning of activity labels with physical attributes of the activities (i.e., domain knowledge) to generate a flexible andmore »meaningful representation of the labels. Specifically, our approach merges labels using both word embedding techniques from the natural language processing domain and activity intensity from the physical activity research. We show that the new representation of the sensor data obtained by LabelMerger results in more accurate activity recognition models compared to the case where original label space is used to learn recognition models.« less