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  1. Activity Recognition (AR) models perform well with a large number of available training instances. However, in the presence of sensor heterogeneity, sensing biasness and variability of human behaviors and activities and unseen activity classes pose key challenges to adopting and scaling these pre-trained activity recognition models in the new environment. These challenging unseen activities recognition problems are addressed by applying transfer learning techniques that leverage a limited number of annotated samples and utilize the inherent structural patterns among activities within and across the source and target domains. This work proposes a novel AR framework that uses the pre-trained deep autoencoder model and generates features from source and target activity samples. Furthermore, this AR frame-work establishes correlations among activities between the source and target domain by exploiting intra- and inter-class knowledge transfer to mitigate the number of labeled samples and recognize unseen activities in the target domain. We validated the efficacy and effectiveness of our AR framework with three real-world data traces (Daily and Sports, Opportunistic, and Wisdm) that contain 41 users and 26 activities in total. Our AR framework achieves performance gains ≈ 5-6% with 111, 18, and 70 activity samples (20 % annotated samples) for Das, Opp, and Wisdm datasets. In addition, our proposed AR framework requires 56, 8, and 35 fewer activity samples (10% fewer annotated examples) for Das, Opp, and Wisdm, respectively, compared to the state-of-the-art Untran model. 
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  2. We explore the effect of auxiliary labels in improving the classification accuracy of wearable sensor-based human activity recognition (HAR) systems, which are primarily trained with the supervision of the activity labels (e.g. running, walking, jumping). Supplemental meta-data are often available during the data collection process such as body positions of the wearable sensors, subjects' demographic information (e.g. gender, age), and the type of wearable used (e.g. smartphone, smart-watch). This information, while not directly related to the activity classification task, can nonetheless provide auxiliary supervision and has the potential to significantly improve the HAR accuracy by providing extra guidance on how to handle the introduced sample heterogeneity from the change in domains (i.e positions, persons, or sensors), especially in the presence of limited activity labels. However, integrating such meta-data information in the classification pipeline is non-trivial - (i) the complex interaction between the activity and domain label space is hard to capture with a simple multi-task and/or adversarial learning setup, (ii) meta-data and activity labels might not be simultaneously available for all collected samples. To address these issues, we propose a novel framework Conditional Domain Embeddings (CoDEm). From the available unlabeled raw samples and their domain meta-data, we first learn a set of domain embeddings using a contrastive learning methodology to handle inter-domain variability and inter-domain similarity. To classify the activities, CoDEm then learns the label embeddings in a contrastive fashion, conditioned on domain embeddings with a novel attention mechanism, enforcing the model to learn the complex domain-activity relationships. We extensively evaluate CoDEm in three benchmark datasets against a number of multi-task and adversarial learning baselines and achieve state-of-the-art performance in each avenue. 
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  3. The scarcity of labeled data has traditionally been the primary hindrance in building scalable supervised deep learning models that can retain adequate performance in the presence of various heterogeneities in sample distributions. Domain adaptation tries to address this issue by adapting features learned from a smaller set of labeled samples to that of the incoming unlabeled samples. The traditional domain adaptation approaches normally consider only a single source of labeled samples, but in real world use cases, labeled samples can originate from multiple-sources – providing motivation for multi-source domain adaptation (MSDA). Several MSDA approaches have been investigated for wearable sensor-based human activity recognition (HAR) in recent times, but their performance improvement compared to single source counterpart remained marginal. To remedy this performance gap that, we explore multiple avenues to align the conditional distributions in addition to the usual alignment of marginal ones. In our investigation, we extend an existing multi-source domain adaptation approach under semi-supervised settings. We assume the availability of partially labeled target domain data and further explore the pseudo labeling usage with a goal to achieve a performance similar to the former. In our experiments on three publicly available datasets, we find that a limited labeled target domain data and pseudo label data boost the performance over the unsupervised approach by 10-35% and 2-6%, respectively, in various domain adaptation scenarios. 
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