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  1. Abstract

    Significant optical absorption in the blue–green spectral range, high intralayer carrier mobility, and band alignment suitable for water splitting suggest tin disulfide (SnS2) as a candidate material for photo‐electrochemical applications. In this work, vertically aligned SnS2nanoflakes are synthesized directly on transparent conductive substrates using a scalable close space sublimation (CSS) method. Detailed characterization by time‐resolved terahertz and time‐resolved photoluminescence spectroscopies reveals a high intrinsic carrier mobility of 330 cm2V−1s−1and photoexcited carrier lifetimes of 1.3 ns in these nanoflakes, resulting in a long vertical diffusion length of ≈1 µm. The highest photo‐electrochemical performance is achieved by growing SnS2nanoflakes with heights that are between this diffusion length and the optical absorption depth of ≈2 µm, which balances the competing requirements of charge transport and light absorption. Moreover, the unique stepped morphology of these CSS‐grown nanoflakes improves photocurrent by exposing multiple edge sites in every nanoflake. The optimized vertical SnS2nanoflake photoanodes produce record photocurrents of 4.5 mA cm−2for oxidation of a sulfite hole scavenger and 2.6 mA cm−2for water oxidation without any hole scavenger, both at 1.23 VRHEin neutral electrolyte under simulated AM1.5G sunlight, and stable photocurrents for iodide oxidation in acidic electrolyte.

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  2. Betz, Markus ; Elezzabi, Abdulhakem Y. (Ed.)