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  1. As the size and complexity of high-performance computing (HPC) systems keep growing, scientists' ability to trust the data produced is paramount due to potential data corruption for various reasons, which may stay undetected. While employing machine learning-based anomaly detection techniques could relieve scientists of such concern, it is practically infeasible due to the need for labels for volumes of scientific datasets and the unwanted extra overhead associated. In this paper, we exploit spatial sparsity profiles exhibited in scientific datasets and propose an approach to detect anomalies effectively. Our method first extracts block-level sparse representations of original datasets in the transformed domain. Then it learns from the extracted sparse representations and builds the boundary threshold between normal and abnormal without relying on labeled data. Experiments using real-world scientific datasets show that the proposed approach requires 13% on average (less than 10% in most cases and as low as 0.3%) of the entire dataset to achieve competitive detection accuracy (70.74%-100.0%) as compared to two state-of-the-art unsupervised techniques. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 10, 2024
  2. Advances in flexible and printable sensor technologies have made it possible to use posture classification for providing timely services in digital healthcare, especially for bedsores or decubitus ulcers. However, managing a large amount of sensor data and ensuring accurate predictions can be challenging. While lossy compressors can reduce data volume, it is still unclear whether this would lead to losing important information and affect downstream application performance. In this paper, we propose LCDNN (Lossy Compression using Deep Neural Network) to reduce the size of sensor data and evaluate the performance of posture classification models. Our sensors, placed under hospital beds, have a thickness of just 0.4mm and collect pressure data from 28 sensors (7 by 4) at an 8 Hz cycle, categorizing postures into 4 types from 5 patients. Our evaluation, which includes reduced datasets by LCDNN, demonstrates that the results are promising. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 9, 2024
  3. High-performance computing (HPC) systems that run scientific simulations of significance produce a large amount of data during runtime. Transferring or storing such big datasets causes a severe I/O bottleneck and a considerable storage burden. Applying compression techniques, particularly lossy compressors, can reduce the size of the data and mitigate such overheads. Unlike lossless compression algorithms, error-controlled lossy compressors could significantly reduce the data size while respecting the user-defined error bound. DCTZ is one of the transform-based lossy compressors with a highly efficient encoding and purpose-built error control mechanism that accomplishes high compression ratios with high data fidelity. However, since DCTZ quantizes the DCT coefficients in the frequency domain, it may only partially control the relative error bound defined by the user. In this paper, we aim to improve the compression quality of DCTZ. Specifically, we propose a preconditioning method based on level offsetting and scaling to control the magnitude of input of the DCTZ framework, thereby enforcing stricter error bounds. We evaluate the performance of our method in terms of compression ratio and rate distortion with real-world HPC datasets. Our experimental result shows that our method can achieve a higher compression ratio than other state-of-the-art lossy compressors with a tighter error bound while precisely guaranteeing the user-defined error bound. 
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  4. Recent years have witnessed an upsurge of interest in lossy compression due to its potential to significantly reduce data volume with adequate exploitation of the spatiotemporal properties of IoT datasets. However, striking a balance between compression ratios and data fidelity is challenging, particularly when losing data fidelity impacts downstream data analytics noticeably. In this paper, we propose a lossy prediction model dealing with binary classification analytics tasks to minimize the impact of the error introduced due to lossy compression. We specifically focus on five classification algorithms for frost prediction in agricultural fields allowing preparation by the predictive advisories to provide helpful information for timely services. While our experimental evaluations reaffirm the nature of lossy compressions where allowing higher errors offers higher compression ratios, we also observe that the classification performance in terms of accuracy and F-1 score differs among all the algorithms we evaluated. Specifically, random forest is the best lossy prediction model for classifying frost. Lastly, we show the robustness of the lossy prediction model based on the data fidelity in prediction performance. 
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  5. As the scale and complexity of high-performance computing (HPC) systems keep growing, data compression techniques are often adopted to reduce the data volume and processing time. While lossy compression becomes preferable to a lossless one because of the potential benefit of generating a high compression ratio, it would lose its worth the effort without finding an optimal balance between volume reduction and information loss. Among many lossy compression techniques, transform-based lossy algorithms utilize spatial redundancy better. However, the transform-based lossy compressor has received relatively less attention because there is a lack of understanding of its compression performance on scientific data sets. The insight of this paper is that, in transform-based lossy compressors, quantifying dominant coefficients at the block level reveals the right balance, potentially impacting overall compression ratios. Motivated by this, we characterize three transformation-based lossy compression mechanisms with different information compaction methods using the statistical features that capture data characteristics. And then, we build several prediction models using the statistical features and the characteristics of dominant coefficients and evaluate the effectiveness of each model using six HPC datasets from three production-level simulations at scale. Our results demonstrate that the random forest classifier captures the behavior of dominant coefficients precisely, achieving nearly 99% of prediction accuracy. 
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    Edge devices with attentive sensors enable various intelligent services by exploring streams of sensor data. However, anomalies, which are inevitable due to faults or failures in the sensor and network, can result in incorrect or unwanted operational decisions. While promptly ensuring the accuracy of IoT data is critical, lack of labels for live sensor data and limited storage resources necessitates efficient and reliable detection of anomalies at edge nodes. Motivated by the existence of unique sparsity profiles that express original signals as a combination of a few coefficients between normal and abnormal sensing periods, we propose a novel anomaly detection approach, called ADSP (Anomaly Detection with Sparsity Profile). The key idea is to apply a transformation on the raw data, identify top-K dominant components that represent normal data behaviors, and detect data anomalies based on the disparity from K values approximating the periods of normal data in an unsupervised manner. Our evaluation using a set of synthetic datasets demonstrates that ADSP can achieve 92%–100% of detection accuracy. To validate our anomaly detection approach on real-world cases, we label potential anomalies using a range of error boundary conditions using sensors exhibiting a straight line in Q-Q plot and strong Pearson correlation and conduct a controlled comparison of the detection accuracy. Our experimental evaluation using real-world datasets demonstrates that ADSP can detect 83%– 92% of anomalies using only 1.7% of the original data, which is comparable to the accuracy achieved by using the entire datasets. 
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    The growing demand for recording longer ECG signals to improve the effectiveness of IoT-enabled remote clinical healthcare is contributing large amounts of ECG data. While lossy compression techniques have shown potential in significantly lowering the amount of data, investigation on how to trade-off between data reduction and data fidelity on ECG data received relatively less attention. This paper gives insight into the power of lossy compression to ECG signals by balancing between data quality and compression ratio. We evaluate the performance of transformed-based lossy compressions on the ECG datasets collected from the Biosemi ActiveTwo devices. Our experimental results indicate that ECG data exhibit high energy compaction property through transformations like DCT and DWT, thus could improve compression ratios significantly without hurting data fidelity much. More importantly, we evaluate the effect of lossy compression on ECG signals by validating the R-peak in the QRS complex. Our method can obtain low error rates measured in PRD (as low as 0.3) and PSNR (up to 67) using only 5% of the transform coefficients. Therefore, R-peaks in the reconstructed ECG signals are almost identical to ones in the original signals, thus facilitating extended ECG monitoring. 
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  9. Scientific simulations run by high-performance computing (HPC) systems produce a large amount of data, which causes an extreme I/O bottleneck and a huge storage burden. Applying compression techniques can mitigate such overheads through reducing the data size. Unlike traditional lossless compressions, error-controlled lossy compressions, such as SZ, ZFP, and DCTZ, designed for scientists who demand not only high compression ratios but also a guarantee of certain degree of precision, is coming into prominence. While rate-distortion efficiency of recent lossy compressors, especially the DCT-based one, is promising due to its high-compression encoding, the overall coding architecture is still conservative, necessitating the quantization that strikes a balance between different encoding possibilities and varying rate-distortions. In this paper, we aim to improve the performance of DCT-based compressor, namely DCTZ, by optimizing the quantization model and encoding mechanism. Specifically, we propose a bit-efficient quantizer based on the DCTZ framework, develop a unique ordering mechanism based on the quantization table, and extend the encoding index. We evaluate the performance of our optimized DCTZ in terms of rate-distortion using real-world HPC datasets. Our experimental evaluations demonstrate that, on average, our proposed approach can improve the compression ratio of the original DCTZ by 1.38x. Moreover, combined with the extended encoding mechanism, the optimized DCTZ shows a competitive performance with state-of-the-art lossy compressors, SZ and ZFP. 
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