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    Human‐driven changes in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) inputs are modifying biogeochemical cycles and the trophic state of many habitats worldwide. These alterations are predicted to continue to increase, with the potential for a wide range of impacts on invertebrates, key players in ecosystem‐level processes. Here, we present a meta‐analysis of 1679 cases from 207 studies reporting the effects of N, P, and combined N + P enrichment on the abundance, biomass, and richness of aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates. Nitrogen and phosphorus additions decreased invertebrate abundance in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, with stronger impacts under combined N + P additions. Likewise, N and N + P additions had stronger negative impacts on the abundance of tropical than temperate invertebrates. Overall, the effects of nutrient enrichment did not differ significantly among major invertebrate taxonomic groups, suggesting that changes in biogeochemical cycles are a pervasive threat to invertebrate populations across ecosystems. The effects of N and P additions differed significantly among invertebrate trophic groups but N + P addition had a consistent negative effect on invertebrates. Nutrient additions had weaker or inconclusive impacts on invertebrate biomass and richness, possibly due to the low number of case studies for these community responses. Our findings suggest that N and P enrichment affect invertebrate community structure mainly by decreasing invertebrate abundance, and these effects are dependent on the habitat and trophic identity of the invertebrates. These results highlight the important effects of human‐driven nutrient enrichment on ecological systems and suggest a potential driver for the global invertebrate decline documented in recent years.

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  2. Resource quantity (i.e. organic matter; OM) is a main driver of the prevailing energy pathway in freshwater food webs. The OM pool is mainly composed of allochthonous material, a primary resource for freshwater consumers. Contrastingly, small amounts of autochthonous OM (i.e. algae) can subsidize aquatic communities due to its higher nutritional quality. To date, there is no consensus about the relative importance of allochthonous and autochthonous OM for freshwater food webs or the environmental factors driving their relative importance. We fill this gap by evaluating the relative importance of allochthonous and autochthonous OM sources for freshwater food webs on a global scale through a meta‐analytical approach. We gathered the outcome of stable isotope mixing models of 2789 cases from 58 published studies and calculated a response ratio between the mean contributions of allochthonous and autochthonous OM for freshwater consumers. Using mixed‐effect models and a multimodel inference approach, we tested the influence of latitude, habitat type, ecosystem size, climate and terrestrial productivity over the response ratio. The relative contribution of autochthonous OM was higher in lotic systems. In lentic systems, increasing terrestrial productivity increased the relative contribution of autochthonous OM, while increasing precipitation and temperature seasonality reduced this relative contribution. We suggested that factors increasing terrestrial productivity might also boost autochthonous OM in these systems, while precipitation increases the transport of allochthonous OM to freshwater habitats. We did not find any relationship between environmental factors and the relative contribution of autochthonous OM for lotic systems. We concluded that the relative contribution of allochthonous and autochthonous energy sources to freshwater food webs differs between lotic and lentic ecosystems and it is dependent on multiple environmental factors.

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