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  1. Abstract

    SARS-CoV-2 has been mutating since it was first sequenced in early January 2020. Here, we analyze 45,494 complete SARS-CoV-2 geneome sequences in the world to understand their mutations. Among them, 12,754 sequences are from the United States. Our analysis suggests the presence of four substrains and eleven top mutations in the United States. These eleven top mutations belong to 3 disconnected groups. The first and second groups consisting of 5 and 8 concurrent mutations are prevailing, while the other group with three concurrent mutations gradually fades out. Moreover, we reveal that female immune systems are more active than those of males in responding to SARS-CoV-2 infections. One of the top mutations, 27964C > T-(S24L) on ORF8, has an unusually strong gender dependence. Based on the analysis of all mutations on the spike protein, we uncover that two of four SARS-CoV-2 substrains in the United States become potentially more infectious.

  2. Abstract

    This work examines methods for predicting the partition coefficient (logP) for a dataset of small molecules. Here, we use atomic attributes such as radius and partial charge, which are typically used as force field parameters in classical molecular dynamics simulations. These atomic attributes are transformed into index‐invariant molecular features using a recently developed method called geometric scattering for graphs (GSG). We call this approach “ClassicalGSG” and examine its performance under a broad range of conditions and hyperparameters. We train ClassicalGSG logPpredictors with neural networks using 10,722 molecules from the OpenChem dataset and apply them to predict the logPvalues from four independent test sets. The ClassicalGSG method's performance is compared to a baseline model that employs graph convolutional networks. Our results show that the best prediction accuracies are obtained using atomic attributes generated with the CHARMM generalized force field and 2D molecular structures.

  3. Abstract

    Persistent homology is constrained to purely topological persistence, while multiscale graphs account only for geometric information. This work introduces persistent spectral theory to create a unified low‐dimensional multiscale paradigm for revealing topological persistence and extracting geometric shapes from high‐dimensional datasets. For a point‐cloud dataset, a filtration procedure is used to generate a sequence of chain complexes and associated families of simplicial complexes and chains, from which we construct persistent combinatorial Laplacian matrices. We show that a full set of topological persistence can be completely recovered from the harmonic persistent spectra, that is, the spectra that have zero eigenvalues, of the persistent combinatorial Laplacian matrices. However, non‐harmonic spectra of the Laplacian matrices induced by the filtration offer another powerful tool for data analysis, modeling, and prediction. In this work, fullerene stability is predicted by using both harmonic spectra and non‐harmonic persistent spectra, while the latter spectra are successfully devised to analyze the structure of fullerenes and model protein flexibility, which cannot be straightforwardly extracted from the current persistent homology. The proposed method is found to provide excellent predictions of the protein B‐factors for which current popular biophysical models break down.

  4. Abstract

    Motivation:Despite its great success in various physical modeling, differential geometry (DG) has rarely been devised as a versatile tool for analyzing large, diverse, and complex molecular and biomolecular datasets because of the limited understanding of its potential power in dimensionality reduction and its ability to encode essential chemical and biological information in differentiable manifolds.

    Results:We put forward a differential geometry‐based geometric learning (DG‐GL) hypothesis that the intrinsic physics of three‐dimensional (3D) molecular structures lies on a family of low‐dimensional manifolds embedded in a high‐dimensional data space. We encode crucial chemical, physical, and biological information into 2D element interactive manifolds, extracted from a high‐dimensional structural data space via a multiscale discrete‐to‐continuum mapping using differentiable density estimators. Differential geometry apparatuses are utilized to construct element interactive curvatures in analytical forms for certain analytically differentiable density estimators. These low‐dimensional differential geometry representations are paired with a robust machine learning algorithm to showcase their descriptive and predictive powers for large, diverse, and complex molecular and biomolecular datasets. Extensive numerical experiments are carried out to demonstrate that the proposed DG‐GL strategy outperforms other advanced methods in the predictions of drug discovery‐related protein‐ligand binding affinity, drug toxicity, and molecular solvation free energy.

    Availability and implementation:‐GL/

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  5. Abstract Targeted protein degradation (TPD) is a promising approach in drug discovery for degrading proteins implicated in diseases. A key step in this process is the formation of a ternary complex where a heterobifunctional molecule induces proximity of an E3 ligase to a protein of interest (POI), thus facilitating ubiquitin transfer to the POI. In this work, we characterize 3 steps in the TPD process. (1) We simulate the ternary complex formation of SMARCA2 bromodomain and VHL E3 ligase by combining hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry with weighted ensemble molecular dynamics (MD). (2) We characterize the conformational heterogeneity of the ternary complex using Hamiltonian replica exchange simulations and small-angle X-ray scattering. (3) We assess the ubiquitination of the POI in the context of the full Cullin-RING Ligase, confirming experimental ubiquitinomics results. Differences in degradation efficiency can be explained by the proximity of lysine residues on the POI relative to ubiquitin.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023