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A Machine Learning Approach to Prioritizing Functionally Active F-box Members in Arabidopsis thalianaProtein degradation through the Ubiquitin (Ub)-26S Proteasome System (UPS) is a major gene expression regulatory pathway in plants. In this pathway, the 76-amino acid Ub proteins are covalently linked onto a large array of UPS substrates with the help of three enzymes (E1 activating, E2 conjugating, and E3 ligating enzymes) and direct them for turnover in the 26S proteasome complex. The S-phase Kinase-associated Protein 1 (Skp1), CUL1, F-box (FBX) protein (SCF) complexes have been identified as the largest E3 ligase group in plants due to the dramatic number expansion of the FBX genes in plant genomes. Since it is the FBX proteins that recognize and determine the specificity of SCF substrates, much effort has been done to characterize their genomic, physiological, and biochemical roles in the past two decades of functional genomic studies. However, the sheer size and high sequence diversity of the FBX gene family demands new approaches to uncover unknown functions. In this work, we first identified 82 known FBX members that have been functionally characterized up to date in Arabidopsis thaliana . Through comparing the genomic structure, evolutionary selection, expression patterns, domain compositions, and functional activities between known and unknown FBX gene members, we developed a neuralmore »
CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1) is a highly conserved E3 ubiquitin ligase from plants to animals and acts as a central repressor of photomorphogenesis in plants. SUPPRESSOR OF PHYA-105 1 family members (SPA1-SPA4) directly interact with COP1 and enhance COP1 activity. Despite the presence of a kinase domain at the N-terminus, no COP1-independent role of SPA proteins has been reported. Here we show that SPA1 acts as a serine/threonine kinase and directly phosphorylates PIF1 in vitro and in vivo. SPAs are necessary for the light-induced phosphorylation, ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of PIF1. Moreover, the red/far-red light photoreceptor phyB interacts with SPA1 through its C-terminus and enhances the recruitment of PIF1 for phosphorylation. These data provide a mechanistic view on how the COP1-SPA complexes serve as an example of a cognate kinase-E3 ligase complex that selectively triggers rapid phosphorylation and removal of its substrates, and how phyB modulates this process to promote photomorphogenesis.
CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of PiSSK1 reveals essential role of S-locus F-box protein-containing SCF complexes in recognition of non-self S-RNases during cross-compatible pollination in self-incompatible Petunia inflataSelf-incompatibility (SI), an inbreeding-preventing mechanism, is regulated in Petunia inflata by the polymorphic S-locus, which houses multiple pollen-specific S-locus F-box (SLF) genes and a single pistil-specific S-RNase gene. S2-haplotype and S3-haplotype possess the same 17 polymorphic SLF genes (named SLF1 to SLF17), and each SLF protein produced in pollen is assembled into an SCF (Skp1–Cullin1– F-box) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. A complete suite of SLF proteins is thought to collectively interact with all non-self S-RNases to mediate their ubiquitination and degradation by the 26S proteasome, allowing cross-compatible pollination. For each SCFSLF complex, the Cullin1 subunit (named PiCUL1-P) and Skp1 subunit (named PiSSK1), like the F-box protein subunits (SLFs), are pollen-specific, raising the possibility that they also evolved specifically to function in SI. Here we used CRISPR/Cas9-meditated genome editing to generate frame-shift indel mutations in PiSSK1, and examined the SI behavior of a T0 plant (S2S3) with biallelic mutations in the pollen genome and two progeny plants (S2S2) each homozygous for one of the indel alleles and not carrying the Cas9-containing T-DNA. Their pollen was completely incompatible with pistils of seven otherwise compatible S-genotypes, but fully compatible with pistils of an S3S3 transgenic plant in which production of S3-RNase was completelymore »
UbE3-APA: a bioinformatic strategy to elucidate ubiquitin E3 ligase activities in quantitative proteomics study
Ubiquitination is widely involved in protein homeostasis and cell signaling. Ubiquitin E3 ligases are critical regulators of ubiquitination that recognize and recruit specific ubiquitination targets for the final rate-limiting step of ubiquitin transfer reactions. Understanding the ubiquitin E3 ligase activities will provide knowledge in the upstream regulator of the ubiquitination pathway and reveal potential mechanisms in biological processes and disease progression. Recent advances in mass spectrometry-based proteomics have enabled deep profiling of ubiquitylome in a quantitative manner. Yet, functional analysis of ubiquitylome dynamics and pathway activity remains challenging.
Here, we developed a UbE3-APA, a computational algorithm and stand-alone python-based software for Ub E3 ligase Activity Profiling Analysis. Combining an integrated annotation database with statistical analysis, UbE3-APA identifies significantly activated or suppressed E3 ligases based on quantitative ubiquitylome proteomics datasets. Benchmarking the software with published quantitative ubiquitylome analysis confirms the genetic manipulation of SPOP enzyme activity through overexpression and mutation. Application of the algorithm in the re-analysis of a large cohort of ubiquitination proteomics study revealed the activation of PARKIN and the co-activation of other E3 ligases in mitochondria depolarization-induced mitophagy process. We further demonstrated the application of the algorithm in the DIA (data-independent acquisition)-based quantitative ubiquitylome analysis.
Availability andmore »
Source code and binaries are freely available for download at URL: https://github.com/Chenlab-UMN/Ub-E3-ligase-Activity-Profiling-Analysis, implemented in python and supported on Linux and MS Windows.
Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Regulation of O-Linked N-Acetyl Glucosamine Transferase (OGT) through E6 Stimulation of the Ubiquitin Ligase Activity of E6APnull (Ed.)Glycosyltransferase OGT catalyzes the conjugation of O-linked β-D-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) to Ser and Thr residues of the cellular proteins and regulates many key processes in the cell. Here, we report the identification of OGT as a ubiquitination target of HECT-type E3 ubiquitin (UB) ligase E6AP, whose overexpression in HEK293 cells would induce the degradation of OGT. We also found that the expression of E6AP in HeLa cells with the endogenous expression of the E6 protein of the human papillomavirus (HPV) would accelerate OGT degradation by the proteasome and suppress O-GlcNAc modification of OGT substrates in the cell. Overall, our study establishes a new mechanism of OGT regulation by the ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) that mediates the crosstalk between protein ubiquitination and O-GlcNAcylation pathways underlying diverse cellular processes.