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  2. In this work, a mechanical vibrational analysis of an ultrasonic atomizer is carried out to control its atomization mass transfer rate. An ultrasonic atomizer is a device constructed with a piezoelectric ring coupled to a metallic circular thin plate with micro-apertures. The mechanism of mass transfer by atomization is a complex phenomenon to model because of the coupling effect between the fluid transfer and dynamic mechanics controlled by a piezoelectric vibrating ring element. Here, the effect of the micro-apertures shape of the meshed thin plate coupled to a piezoelectric ring during vibration, as well as the resonance frequency modes, are numerically studied using a finite element analysis and compared with theoretical and experimental results. Good correlations between the predicted and experimental results of the resonant frequencies and atomization rates were found. 
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  3. Abstract With the rapid developments of advanced manufacturing and its ability to manufacture microscale features, architected materials are receiving ever increasing attention in many physics fields. Such a design problem can be treated in topology optimization as architected material with repeated unit cells using the homogenization theory with the periodic boundary condition. When multiple architected materials with spatial variations in a structure are considered, a challenge arises in topological solutions, which may not be connected between adjacent material architecture. This paper introduces a new measure, connectivity index (CI), to quantify the topological connectivity, and adds it as a constraint in multiscale topology optimization to achieve connected architected materials. Numerical investigations reveal that the additional constraints lead to microstructural topologies, which are well connected and do not substantially compromise their optimalities. 
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