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  1. Abstract Pyramidal truss sandwich panels (PTSPs) are widely used in engineering structures and their face sheets and core parts are generally bonded by the welding process. A large number of solid elements are usually required in the finite element (FE) model of a PTSP with welded joints to obtain its accurate modal parameters. Ignoring welded joints of the PTSP can save many degrees of freedom (DOFs), but significantly change its natural frequencies. This study aims to accurately determine modal parameters of a PTSP with welded joints with much fewer DOFs than those of its solid element model and to obtainmore »its operational modal analysis results by avoiding missing its modes. Two novel methods that consider welded joints as equivalent stiffness are proposed to create beam-shell element models of the PTSP. The main step is to match stiffnesses of beam and shell elements of a welded joint with those of its solid elements. Compared with the solid element model of the PTSP, its proposed models provide almost the same levels of accuracy for natural frequencies and mode shapes for the first 20 elastic modes, while reducing DOFs by about 98% for the whole structure and 99% for each welded joint. The first 14 elastic modes of a PTSP specimen that were measured without missing any modes by synchronously capturing its two-faced vibrations through use of a three-dimensional scanning laser vibrometer (SLV) and a mirror experimentally validate its beam-shell element models created by the two proposed methods.« less
  2. Abstract A new operational modal analysis (OMA) method that is based on a rigorous nonuniform rotating beam vibration theory and an image processing method is developed to estimate modal parameters (MPs) of a rotating structure (RS) under random excitation using an improved demodulation method. The solution to the governing equation of a nonuniform rotating beam is derived, which can be considered as the response of the beam measured by a continuously scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (CSLDV) system. A recently developed tracking CSLDV system can track and scan the RS. The image processing method determines the angular position of the RSmore »so that the tracking CSLDV system can sweep its laser spot along a time-varying scan path on it. The improved demodulation method obtains undamped mode shapes (UMSs) of the RS by multiplying its measured response by sinusoidal signals with its damped natural frequencies (DNFs) obtained from the fast Fourier transform of the measured response. Experimental investigation of the OMA method using the tracking CSLDV system is conducted, and MPs of a rotating fan blade (RFB), including DNFs and UMSs, with different constant speeds and its instantaneous MPs with a non-constant speed are estimated. Estimated first DNFs and UMSs of the stationary fan blade and RFB are compared with those from the lifting method that was previously developed by the authors.« less