We study the singular set in the thin obstacle problem for degenerate parabolic equations with weight
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Abstract for$$y^a$$ ${\lefty\right}^{a}$ . Such problem arises as the local extension of the obstacle problem for the fractional heat operator$$a \in (1,1)$$ $a\in (1,1)$ for$$(\partial _t  \Delta _x)^s$$ ${({\partial}_{t}{\Delta}_{x})}^{s}$ . Our main result establishes the complete structure and regularity of the singular set of the free boundary. To achieve it, we prove AlmgrenPoon, Weiss, and Monneau type monotonicity formulas which generalize those for the case of the heat equation ($$s \in (0,1)$$ $s\in (0,1)$ ).$$a=0$$ $a=0$ 
In this paper we introduce a notion of almost minimizers for certain variational problems governed by the fractional Laplacian, with the help of the CaffarelliSilvestre extension. In particular, we study almost fractional harmonic functions and almost minimizers for the fractional obstacle problem with zero obstacle. We show that for a certain range of parameters, almost minimizers are almost Lipschitz or C1,βregular.more » « less

In this paper we study the existence, the optimal regularity of solutions, and the regularity of the free boundary near the socalled \emph{regular points} in a thin obstacle problem that arises as the local extension of the obstacle problem for the fractional heat operator $(\partial_t  \Delta_x)^s$ for $s \in (0,1)$. Our regularity estimates are completely local in nature. This aspect is of crucial importance in our forthcoming work on the blowup analysis of the free boundary, including the study of the singular set. Our approach is based on first establishing the boundedness of the timederivative of the solution. This allows reduction to an elliptic problem at every fixed time level. Using several results from the elliptic theory, including the epiperimetric inequality, we establish the optimal regularity of solutions as well as $H^{1+\gamma,\frac{1+\gamma}{2}}$ regularity of the free boundary near such regular points.more » « less