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  1. Abstract

    TmVO4exhibits ferroquadrupolar order of the Tm 4f electronic orbitals at low temperatures, and is a model system for Ising nematicity. A magnetic field oriented along thec-axis constitutes a transverse effective field for the quadrupolar order parameter, continuously tuning the system to a quantum phase transition as the field is increased from zero. In contrast, in-plane magnetic fields couple to the order parameter only at second order, such that orienting along the primary axes of the quadrupole order results in an effective longitudinal field, whereas orienting at 45 degrees results in a second effective transverse field. Not only do in-plane fields engender a marked in-plane anisotropy of the critical magnetic and quadrupole fluctuations above the ferroquadrupolar ordering temperature, but in-plane transverse fields initially enhance the ferroquadrupolar order, before eventually suppressing it, an effect that we attribute to admixing of the higher crystalline electric field levels.

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance provides a wealth of information about the magnetic and nematic degrees of freedom in the iron-based superconductors. A striking observation is that the spin lattice relaxation rate is inhomogeneous with a standard deviation that correlates with the nematic susceptibility. Moreover, the spin lattice relaxation is strongly affected by uniaxial strain, and in doped samples it depends sensitively upon the history of the applied strain. These observations suggest that quenched strain fields associated with doping atoms induce a nematic glass in the iron pnictide materials.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 14, 2023