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  1. In the mean field integrate-and-fire model, the dynamics of a typical neuronwithin a large network is modeled as a diffusion-jump stochastic process whosejump takes place once the voltage reaches a threshold. In this work, the maingoal is to establish the convergence relationship between the regularizedprocess and the original one where in the regularized process, the jumpmechanism is replaced by a Poisson dynamic, and jump intensity within theclassically forbidden domain goes to infinity as the regularization parametervanishes. On the macroscopic level, the Fokker-Planck equation for the processwith random discharges (i.e. Poisson jumps) are defined on the whole space,while the equation for the limit process is on the half space. However, withthe iteration scheme, the difficulty due to the domain differences has beengreatly mitigated and the convergence for the stochastic process and the firingrates can be established. Moreover, we find a polynomial-order convergence forthe distribution by a re-normalization argument in probability theory. Finally,by numerical experiments, we quantitatively explore the rate and the asymptoticbehavior of the convergence for both linear and nonlinear models.
  2. Abstract We focus on the existence and rigidity problems of the vectorial Peierls–Nabarro (PN) model for dislocations. Under the assumption that the misfit potential on the slip plane only depends on the shear displacement along the Burgers vector, a reduced non-local scalar Ginzburg–Landau equation with an anisotropic positive (if Poisson ratio belongs to (−1/2, 1/3)) singular kernel is derived on the slip plane. We first prove that minimizers of the PN energy for this reduced scalar problem exist. Starting from H 1/2 regularity, we prove that these minimizers are smooth 1D profiles only depending on the shear direction, monotonically and uniformly converge to two stable states at far fields in the direction of the Burgers vector. Then a De Giorgi-type conjecture of single-variable symmetry for both minimizers and layer solutions is established. As a direct corollary, minimizers and layer solutions are unique up to translations. The proof of this De Giorgi-type conjecture relies on a delicate spectral analysis which is especially powerful for nonlocal pseudo-differential operators with strong maximal principle. All these results hold in any dimension since we work on the domain periodic in the transverse directions of the slip plane. The physical interpretation of this rigidity result ismore »that the equilibrium dislocation on the slip plane only admits shear displacements and is a strictly monotonic 1D profile provided exclusive dependence of the misfit potential on the shear displacement.« less
  3. We prove the existence and uniqueness of positive analytical solutions with positive initial data to the mean field equation (the Dyson equation) of the Dyson Brownian motion through the complex Burgers equation with a force term on the upper half complex plane. These solutions converge to a steady state given by Wigner’s semicircle law. A unique global weak solution with nonnegative initial data to the Dyson equation is obtained, and some explicit solutions are given by Wigner’s semicircle laws. We also construct a bi-Hamiltonian structure for the system of real and imaginary components of the complex Burgers equation (coupled Burgers system). We establish a kinetic formulation for the coupled Burgers system and prove the existence and uniqueness of entropy solutions. The coupled Burgers system in Lagrangian variable naturally leads to two interacting particle systems, the Fermi–Pasta–Ulam–Tsingou model with nearest-neighbor interactions, and the Calogero–Moser model. These two particle systems yield the same Lagrangian dynamics in the continuum limit.
  4. We propose an equilibrium-driven deformation algorithm (EDDA) to simulate the inbetweening transformations starting from an initial image to an equilibrium image, which covers images varying from a greyscale type to a colorful type on planes or manifolds. The algorithm is based on the Fokker-Planck dynamics on manifold, which automatically incorporates the manifold structure suggested by dataset and satisfies positivity, unconditional stability, mass conservation law and exponentially convergence. The thresholding scheme is adapted for the sharp interface dynamics and is used to achieve the finite time convergence. Using EDDA, three challenging examples, (I) facial aging process, (II) coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia invading/fading process, and (III) continental evolution process are computed efficiently.