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    Determining black hole masses and accretion rates with better accuracy and precision is crucial for understanding quasars as a population. These are fundamental physical properties that underpin models of active galactic nuclei. A primary technique to measure the black hole mass employs the reverberation mapping of low-redshift quasars, which is then extended via the radius–luminosity relationship for the broad-line region to estimate masses based on single-epoch spectra. An updated radius–luminosity relationship incorporates the flux ratio of optical Fe ii to H β ($\equiv \mathcal {R}_{\rm Fe}$) to correct for a bias in which more highly accreting systems have smaller line-emitting regions than previously realized. In this work, we demonstrate and quantify the effect of using this Fe-corrected radius-luminosity relationship on mass estimation by employing archival data sets possessing rest-frame optical spectra over a wide range of redshifts. We find that failure to use an Fe-corrected radius predictor results in overestimated single-epoch black hole masses for the most highly accreting quasars. Their accretion rate measures (LBol/LEdd and $\dot{\mathscr{M}}$ ) are similarly underestimated. The strongest Fe-emitting quasars belong to two classes: high-z quasars with rest-frame optical spectra, which, given their extremely high luminosities, require high accretion rates, and their low-z analogues, which, given their low black holes masses, must have high accretion rates to meet survey flux limits. These classes have mass corrections downward of about a factor of two, on average. These results strengthen the association of the dominant Eigenvector 1 parameter $\mathcal {R}_{\rm Fe}$ with the accretion process.

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    Abstract Quasar black hole masses are most commonly estimated using broad emission lines in single epoch spectra based on scaling relationships determined from reverberation mapping of small samples of low-redshift objects. Several effects have been identified requiring modifications to these scaling relationships, resulting in significant reductions of the black hole mass determinations at high redshift. Correcting these systematic biases is critical to understanding the relationships among black hole and host galaxy properties. We are completing a program using the Gemini North telescope, called the Gemini North Infrared Spectrograph (GNIRS) Distant Quasar Survey (DQS), that has produced rest-frame optical spectra of about 200 high-redshift quasars (z = 1.5–3.5). The GNIRS-DQS will produce new and improved ultraviolet-based black hole mass and accretion rate prescriptions, as well as new redshift prescriptions for velocity zero points of high-z quasars, necessary to measure feedback. 
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