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    As an introduction of a kinematic survey of Magellanic Cloud (MC) star clusters, we report on the dynamical masses and mass-to-light ratios (M/L) of NGC 419 (Small Magellanic Cloud) and NGC 1846 (Large Magellanic Cloud). We have obtained more than one hundred high-resolution stellar spectra in and around each cluster using the multi-object spectrograph M2FS on the Magellan/Clay Telescope. Line-of-sight velocities and positions of the stars observed in each cluster were used as input to an expectation-maximization algorithm used to estimate cluster membership probabilities, resulting in samples of 46 and 52 likely members (PM ≥ 50 per cent) in NGC 419 and NGCmore »1846, respectively. This process employed single-mass King models constrained by the structural parameters of the clusters and provided self-consistent dynamical mass estimates for both clusters. Our best-fitting results show that NGC 419 has a projected central velocity dispersion of $2.44^{+0.37}_{-0.21}$ km s−1, corresponding to a total mass of $7.6^{+2.5}_{-1.3}\times 10^4\ {\rm M}_{\odot }$ and V-band M/L ratio of $0.22^{+0.08}_{-0.05}$ in solar units. For NGC 1846, the corresponding results are $2.04^{+0.28}_{-0.24}$ km s−1, $5.4^{+1.5}_{-1.4}\times 10^4\ {\rm M}_{\odot }$, and $0.32^{+0.11}_{-0.11}$. The mean metallicities of NGC 419 and NGC 1846 are found to be $\rm [Fe/H]=-0.84\pm 0.19$ and −0.70 ± 0.08, respectively, based on the spectra of likely cluster members. We find marginal statistical evidence of rotation in both clusters, though in neither cluster does rotation alter our mass estimates significantly. We critically compare our findings with those of previous kinematic studies of these two clusters in order to evaluate the consistency of our observational results and analytic tools.

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  2. ABSTRACT We present new MMT/Hectochelle spectroscopic measurements for 257 stars observed along the line of sight to the ultrafaint dwarf galaxy Triangulum II (Tri II). Combining results from previous Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy, we obtain a sample that includes 16 likely members of Tri II, with up to 10 independent redshift measurements per star. To this multi-epoch kinematic data set, we apply methodology that we develop in order to infer binary orbital parameters from sparsely sampled radial velocity curves with as few as two epochs. For a previously identified (spatially unresolved) binary system in Tri II, we infer an orbital solution with periodmore »$296.0_{-3.3}^{+3.8} \rm ~ d$, semimajor axis $1.12^{+0.41}_{-0.24}\rm ~au$, and systemic velocity $-380.0 \pm 1.7 \rm ~km ~s^{-1}$ that we then use in the analysis of Tri II’s internal kinematics. Despite this improvement in the modelling of binary star systems, the current data remain insufficient to resolve the velocity dispersion of Tri II. We instead find a 95 per cent confidence upper limit of $\sigma _{v} \lesssim 3.4 \rm ~km~s^{-1}$.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 14, 2023
  3. Abstract We present observations of the dwarf galaxies GALFA Dw3 and GALFA Dw4 with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. These galaxies were initially discovered as optical counterparts to compact H i clouds in the GALFA survey. Both objects resolve into stellar populations which display old red giant branch (RGB), younger helium-burning, and massive main sequence stars. We use the tip of the RGB method to determine the distance to each galaxy, finding distances of 7.61 − 0.29 + 0.28 Mpc and 3.10 − 0.17 + 0.16 Mpc, respectively. With these distances we show that bothmore »galaxies are extremely isolated, with no other confirmed objects within ∼1.5 Mpc of either dwarf. GALFA Dw4 is also found to be unusually compact for a galaxy of its luminosity. GALFA Dw3 and Dw4 contain H ii regions with young star clusters and an overall irregular morphology; they show evidence of ongoing star formation through both ultraviolet and H α observations and are therefore classified as dwarf irregulars (dIrrs). The star formation histories of these two dwarfs show distinct differences: Dw3 shows signs of a recently ceased episode of active star formation across the entire dwarf, while Dw4 shows some evidence for current star formation in spatially limited H ii regions. Compact H i sources offer a promising method for identifying isolated field dwarfs in the Local Volume, including GALFA Dw3 and Dw4, with the potential to shed light on the driving mechanisms of dwarf galaxy formation and evolution.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  4. Abstract The Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy has an anomalous number of globular clusters, five, for its stellar mass. There is a longstanding debate about a potential sixth globular cluster (Fornax 6) that has recently been “rediscovered” in DECam imaging. We present new Magellan/M2FS spectroscopy of the Fornax 6 cluster and Fornax dSph. Combined with literature data we identify ∼15–17 members of the Fornax 6 cluster, showing that this overdensity is indeed a star cluster and associated with the Fornax dSph. The cluster is significantly more metal-rich (mean metallicity of [ Fe / H ] ¯ = −0.71 ± 0.05) thanmore »the other five Fornax globular clusters (−2.5 < [Fe/H] < −1.4) and more metal-rich than the bulk of Fornax. We measure a velocity dispersion of 5.6 − 1.6 + 2.0 km s − 1 corresponding to an anomalously high mass-to-light of 15 < M / L < 258 at 90% confidence when calculated assuming equilibrium. Two stars inflate this dispersion and may be either Fornax field stars or as yet unresolved binary stars. Alternatively, the Fornax 6 cluster may be undergoing tidal disruption. Based on its metal-rich nature, the Fornax 6 cluster is likely younger than the other Fornax clusters, with an estimated age of ∼2 Gyr when compared to stellar isochrones. The chemodynamics and star formation history of Fornax shows imprints of major events such as infall into the Milky Way, multiple pericenter passages, star formation bursts, and/or potential mergers or interactions. Any of these events may have triggered the formation of the Fornax 6 cluster.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  5. ABSTRACT We present spectroscopy of individual stars in 26 Magellanic Cloud (MC) star clusters with the aim of estimating dynamical masses and V-band mass-to-light (M/LV) ratios over a wide range in age and metallicity. We obtained 3137 high-resolution stellar spectra with M2FS on the Magellan/Clay Telescope. Combined with 239 published spectroscopic results of comparable quality, we produced a final sample of 2787 stars with good quality spectra for kinematic analysis in the target clusters. Line-of-sight velocities measured from these spectra and stellar positions within each cluster were used in a customized expectation-maximization (EM) technique to estimate cluster membership probabilities. Usingmore »appropriate cluster structural parameters and corresponding single-mass dynamical models, this technique ultimately provides self-consistent total mass and M/LV estimates for each cluster. Mean metallicities for the clusters were also obtained and tied to a scale based on calcium IR triplet metallicities. We present trends of the cluster M/LV values with cluster age, mass, and metallicity, and find that our results run about 40 per cent on average lower than the predictions of a set of simple stellar population (SSP) models. Modified SSP models that account for internal and external dynamical effects greatly improve agreement with our results, as can models that adopt a strongly bottom-light IMF. To the extent that dynamical evolution must occur, a modified IMF is not required to match data and models. In contrast, a bottom-heavy IMF is ruled out for our cluster sample as this would lead to higher predicted M/LV values, significantly increasing the discrepancy with our observations.« less
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