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We investigate the adversarial robustness of streaming algorithms. In this context, an algorithm is considered robust if its performance guarantees hold even if the stream is chosen adaptively by an adversary that observes the outputs of the algorithm along the stream and can react in an online manner. While deterministic streaming algorithms are inherently robust, many central problems in the streaming literature do not admit sublinearspace deterministic algorithms; on the other hand, classical spaceefficient randomized algorithms for these problems are generally not adversarially robust. This raises the natural question of whether there exist efficient adversarially robust (randomized) streaming algorithms for these problems. In this work, we show that the answer is positive for various important streaming problems in the insertiononly model, including distinct elements and more generally F p estimation, F p heavy hitters, entropy estimation, and others. For all of these problems, we develop adversarially robust (1+ε)approximation algorithms whose required space matches that of the best known nonrobust algorithms up to a poly(log n , 1/ε) multiplicative factor (and in some cases even up to a constant factor). Towards this end, we develop several generic tools allowing one to efficiently transform a nonrobust streaming algorithm into a robust one in various scenarios.more » « less

An \ell _p oblivious subspace embedding is a distribution over r \times n matrices \Pi such that for any fixed n \times d matrix A , \[ \Pr _{\Pi }[\textrm {for all }x, \ \Vert Ax\Vert _p \le \Vert \Pi Ax\Vert _p \le \kappa \Vert Ax\Vert _p] \ge 9/10,\] where r is the dimension of the embedding, \kappa is the distortion of the embedding, and for an n dimensional vector y , \Vert y\Vert _p = (\sum _{i=1}^n y_i^p)^{1/p} is the \ell _p norm. Another important property is the sparsity of \Pi , that is, the maximum number of nonzero entries per column, as this determines the running time of computing \Pi A . While for p = 2 there are nearly optimal tradeoffs in terms of the dimension, distortion, and sparsity, for the important case of 1 \le p \lt 2 , much less was known. In this article, we obtain nearly optimal tradeoffs for \ell _1 oblivious subspace embeddings, as well as new tradeoffs for 1 \lt p \lt 2 . Our main results are as follows: (1) We show for every 1 \le p \lt 2 , any oblivious subspace embedding with dimension r has distortion \[ \kappa = \Omega \left(\frac{1}{\left(\frac{1}{d}\right)^{1 / p} \log ^{2 / p}r + \left(\frac{r}{n}\right)^{1 / p  1 / 2}}\right).\] When r = {\operatorname{poly}}(d) \ll n in applications, this gives a \kappa = \Omega (d^{1/p}\log ^{2/p} d) lower bound, and shows the oblivious subspace embedding of Sohler and Woodruff (STOC, 2011) for p = 1 is optimal up to {\operatorname{poly}}(\log (d)) factors. (2) We give sparse oblivious subspace embeddings for every 1 \le p \lt 2 . Importantly, for p = 1 , we achieve r = O(d \log d) , \kappa = O(d \log d) and s = O(\log d) nonzero entries per column. The best previous construction with s \le {\operatorname{poly}}(\log d) is due to Woodruff and Zhang (COLT, 2013), giving \kappa = \Omega (d^2 {\operatorname{poly}}(\log d)) or \kappa = \Omega (d^{3/2} \sqrt {\log n} \cdot {\operatorname{poly}}(\log d)) and r \ge d \cdot {\operatorname{poly}}(\log d) ; in contrast our r = O(d \log d) and \kappa = O(d \log d) are optimal up to {\operatorname{poly}}(\log (d)) factors even for dense matrices. We also give (1) \ell _p oblivious subspace embeddings with an expected 1+\varepsilon number of nonzero entries per column for arbitrarily small \varepsilon \gt 0 , and (2) the first oblivious subspace embeddings for 1 \le p \lt 2 with O(1) distortion and dimension independent of n . Oblivious subspace embeddings are crucial for distributed and streaming environments, as well as entrywise \ell _p lowrank approximation. Our results give improved algorithms for these applications.more » « less