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  1. In this work-in-progress paper, we apply the ecosystems metaphor to develop a model to address the ways a technology-based tool, the Concept Warehouse (Koretsky et al., 2014), propagates in diverse settings and to how students use the tool in their learning. The ecosystem model goes beyond previous research using the Diffusion of Innovations framework (Rogers, 2005). While Diffusion of Innovations has been applied to educational innovations in engineering education (Borrego et al., 2010), physics education (Henderson and Dancy, 2008), and medical education (Rogers, 2002), it does not adequately account for the ways in which instructional and learning practices are socially situated within specific educational ecosystems, nor how those systems influence the ways in which practices are taken up by individuals and groups. 
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  2. Cognitive conflict arises when students’ expectation about a physical situation, such as the relative temperatures of metal and cloth, are not experimentally verified. The paper reviews this approach as a tool for promoting conceptual learning in undergraduate engineering courses, through three case studies. These cases demonstrate that cognitive conflict can be a successful strategy for engineering instructors to support students’ conceptual learning in engineering as a first step to create a teachable moment. 
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