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  1. Abstract

    The basalts of the 2021 Fagradalsfjall eruption were the first erupted on the Reykjanes Peninsula in 781 years and offer a unique opportunity to determine the composition of the mantle underlying Iceland, in particular its oxygen isotope composition (δ18O values). The basalts show compositional variations in Zr/Y, Nb/Zr and Nb/Y values that span roughly half of the previously described range for Icelandic basaltic magmas and signal involvement of Icelandic plume (OIB) and Enriched Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt (EMORB) in magma genesis. Here we show that Fagradalsfjall δ18O values are invariable (mean δ18O = 5.4 ± 0.3‰ 2 SD,N = 47) and indistinguishable from “normal” upper mantle, in contrast to significantly lower δ18O values reported for erupted materials elsewhere in Iceland (e.g., the 2014–2015 eruption at Holuhraun, Central Iceland). Thus, despite differing trace element characteristics, the melts that supplied the Fagradalsfjall eruption show no evidence for18O-depleted mantle or interaction with low-δ18O crust and may therefore represent a useful mantle reference value in this part of the Icelandic plume system.

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  2. Abstract

    Magma‐water interaction can dramatically influence the explosivity of volcanic eruptions. However, syn‐ and post‐eruptive diffusion of external (non‐magmatic) water into volcanic glass remains poorly constrained and may bias interpretation of water in juvenile products. Hydrogen isotopes in ash from the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, record syn‐eruptive hydration by vaporized glacial meltwater. Both ash aggregation and hydration occurred in the wettest regions of the plume, which resulted in the removal and deposition of the most hydrated ash in proximal areas <50 km from the vent. Diffusion models show that the high temperatures of pyroclast‐water interactions (>400°C) are more important than the cooling rate in facilitating hydration. These observations suggest that syn‐eruptive glass hydration occurred where meltwater was entrained at high temperature, in the plume margins near the vent. Ash in the drier plume interior remained insulated from entrained meltwater until it cooled sufficiently to avoid significant hydration.

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  3. Abstract Mount Elbrus, Europe's tallest and largely glaciated volcano, is made of silicic lavas and is known for Holocene eruptions, but the size and state of its magma chamber remain poorly constrained. We report high spatial resolution U–Th–Pb zircon ages, co-registered with oxygen and hafnium isotopic values, span ~ 0.6 Ma in each lava, documenting magmatic initiation that forms the current edifice. The best-fit thermochemical modeling constrains magmatic fluxes at 1.2 km 3 /1000 year by hot (900 °C), initially zircon-undersaturated dacite into a vertically extensive magma body since ~ 0.6 Ma, whereas a volcanic episode with eruptible magma only extends over the past 0.2 Ma, matching the age of oldest lavas. Simulations explain the total magma volume of ~ 180 km 3 , temporally oscillating δ 18 O and εHf values, and a wide range of zircon age distributions in each sample. These data provide insights into the current state (~ 200 km 3 of melt in a vertically extensive system) and the potential for future activity of Elbrus calling for much-needed seismic imaging. Similar zircon records worldwide require continuous intrusive activity by magmatic accretion of silicic magmas generated at depths, and that zircon ages do not reflect eruption ages but predate them by ~ 10 3 to 10 5  years reflecting protracted dissolution–crystallization histories. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
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    The unexpected intersection of rhyolitic magma and retrieval of quenched glass particles at the Iceland Deep Drilling Project-1 geothermal well in 2009 at Krafla, Iceland, provide unprecedented opportunities to characterize the genesis, storage, and behavior of subsurface silicic magma. In this study, we analyzed the complete time series of glass particles retrieved after magma was intersected, in terms of distribution, chemistry, and vesicle textures. Detailed analysis of the particles revealed them to represent bimodal rhyolitic magma compositions and textures. Early-retrieved clear vesicular glass has higher SiO2, crystal, and vesicle contents than later-retrieved dense brown glass. The vesicle size and distribution of the brown glass also reveal several vesicle populations. The glass particles vary in δD from −120‰ to −80‰ and have dissolved water contents spanning 1.3−2 wt%, although the majority of glass particles exhibit a narrower range. Vesicular textures indicate that volatile overpressure release predominantly occurred prior to late-stage magma ascent, and we infer that vesiculation occurred in response to drilling-induced decompression. The textures and chemistry of the rhyolitic glasses are consistent with variable partial melting of host felsite. The drilling recovery sequence indicates that the clear magma (lower degree partial melt) overlays the brown magma (higher degree partial melt). The isotopes and water species support high temperature hydration of these partial melts by a mixed meteoric and magmatic composition fluid. The textural evidence for partial melting and lack of crystallization imply that magma production is ongoing, and the growing magma body thus has a high potential for geothermal energy extraction. In summary, transfer of heat and fluids into felsite triggered variable degrees of felsite partial melting and produced a hydrated rhyolite magma with chemical and textural heterogeneities that were then enhanced by drilling perturbations. Such partial melting could occur extensively in the crust above magma chambers, where complex intrusive systems can form and supply the heat and fluids required to re-melt the host rock. Our findings emphasize the need for higher resolution geophysical monitoring of restless calderas both for hazard assessment and geothermal prospecting. We also provide insight into how shallow silicic magma reacts to drilling, which could be key to future exploration of the use of magma bodies in geothermal energy. 
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