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Title: Diverse mantle components with invariant oxygen isotopes in the 2021 Fagradalsfjall eruption, Iceland

The basalts of the 2021 Fagradalsfjall eruption were the first erupted on the Reykjanes Peninsula in 781 years and offer a unique opportunity to determine the composition of the mantle underlying Iceland, in particular its oxygen isotope composition (δ18O values). The basalts show compositional variations in Zr/Y, Nb/Zr and Nb/Y values that span roughly half of the previously described range for Icelandic basaltic magmas and signal involvement of Icelandic plume (OIB) and Enriched Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt (EMORB) in magma genesis. Here we show that Fagradalsfjall δ18O values are invariable (mean δ18O = 5.4 ± 0.3‰ 2 SD,N = 47) and indistinguishable from “normal” upper mantle, in contrast to significantly lower δ18O values reported for erupted materials elsewhere in Iceland (e.g., the 2014–2015 eruption at Holuhraun, Central Iceland). Thus, despite differing trace element characteristics, the melts that supplied the Fagradalsfjall eruption show no evidence for18O-depleted mantle or interaction with low-δ18O crust and may therefore represent a useful mantle reference value in this part of the Icelandic plume system.

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Nature Communications
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National Science Foundation
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