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  1. Abstract

    Computing centres, including those used to process High-Energy Physics data and simulations, are increasingly providing significant fractions of their computing resources through hardware architectures other than x86 CPUs, with GPUs being a common alternative. GPUs can provide excellent computational performance at a good price point for tasks that can be suitably parallelized. Charged particle (track) reconstruction is a computationally expensive component of HEP data reconstruction, and thus needs to use available resources in an efficient way. In this paper, an implementation of Kalman filter-based track fitting using CUDA and running on GPUs is presented. This utilizes the ACTS (A Common Tracking Software) toolkit; an open source and experiment-independent toolkit for track reconstruction. The implementation details and parallelization approach are described, along with the specific challenges for such an implementation. Detailed performance benchmarking results are discussed, which show encouraging performance gains over a CPU-based implementation for representative configurations. Finally, a perspective on the challenges and future directions for these studies is outlined. These include more complex and realistic scenarios which can be studied, and anticipated developments to software frameworks and standards which may open up possibilities for greater flexibility and improved performance.

  2. Abstract

    Recent work has demonstrated that geometric deep learning methods such as graph neural networks (GNNs) are well suited to address a variety of reconstruction problems in high-energy particle physics. In particular, particle tracking data are naturally represented as a graph by identifying silicon tracker hits as nodes and particle trajectories as edges, given a set of hypothesized edges, edge-classifying GNNs identify those corresponding to real particle trajectories. In this work, we adapt the physics-motivated interaction network (IN) GNN toward the problem of particle tracking in pileup conditions similar to those expected at the high-luminosity Large Hadron Collider. Assuming idealized hit filtering at various particle momenta thresholds, we demonstrate the IN’s excellent edge-classification accuracy and tracking efficiency through a suite of measurements at each stage of GNN-based tracking: graph construction, edge classification, and track building. The proposed IN architecture is substantially smaller than previously studied GNN tracking architectures; this is particularly promising as a reduction in size is critical for enabling GNN-based tracking in constrained computing environments. Furthermore, the IN may be represented as either a set of explicit matrix operations or a message passing GNN. Efforts are underway to accelerate each representation via heterogeneous computing resources towards both high-levelmore »and low-latency triggering applications.

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  3. Abstract

    The long-term sustainability of the high-energy physics (HEP) research software ecosystem is essential to the field. With new facilities and upgrades coming online throughout the 2020s, this will only become increasingly important. Meeting the sustainability challenge requires a workforce with a combination of HEP domain knowledge and advanced software skills. The required software skills fall into three broad groups. The first is fundamental and generic software engineering (e.g., Unix, version control, C++, and continuous integration). The second is knowledge of domain-specific HEP packages and practices (e.g., the ROOT data format and analysis framework). The third is more advanced knowledge involving specialized techniques, including parallel programming, machine learning and data science tools, and techniques to maintain software projects at all scales. This paper discusses the collective software training program in HEP led by the HEP Software Foundation (HSF) and the Institute for Research and Innovation in Software in HEP (IRIS-HEP). The program equips participants with an array of software skills that serve as ingredients for the solution of HEP computing challenges. Beyond serving the community by ensuring that members are able to pursue research goals, the program serves individuals by providing intellectual capital and transferable skills important to careers inmore »the realm of software and computing, inside or outside HEP.

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  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 28, 2024
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2024
  6. Abstract Analysis on HEP data is an iterative process in which the results of one step often inform the next. In an exploratory analysis, it is common to perform one computation on a collection of events, then view the results (often with histograms) to decide what to try next. Awkward Array is a Scikit-HEP Python package that enables data analysis with array-at-a-time operations to implement cuts as slices, combinatorics as composable functions, etc. However, most C++ HEP libraries, such as FastJet, have an imperative, one-particle-at-a-time interface, which would be inefficient in Python and goes against the grain of the array-at-a-time logic of scientific Python. Therefore, we developed fastjet, a pip-installable Python package that provides FastJet C++ binaries, the classic (particle-at-a-time) Python interface, and the new array-oriented interface for use with Awkward Array. The new interface streamlines interoperability with scientific Python software beyond HEP, such as machine learning. In one case, adopting this library along with other array-oriented tools accelerated HEP analysis code by a factor of 20. It was designed to be easily integrated with libraries in the Scikit-HEP ecosystem, including Uproot (file I/O), hist (histogramming), Vector (Lorentz vectors), and Coffea (high-level glue). We discuss the design of the fastjetmore »Python library, integrating the classic interface with the array oriented interface and with the Vector library for Lorentz vector operations. The new interface was developed as open source.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2024
  7. Abstract Analysis description languages are declarative interfaces for HEP data analysis that allow users to avoid writing event loops, simplify code, and enable performance improvements to be decoupled from analysis development. One example is FuncADL, inspired by functional programming and developed using Python as a host language. FuncADL borrows concepts from database query languages to isolate the interface from the underlying physical and logical schemas. The same query can be used to select data from different sources and formats and with different execution mechanisms. FuncADL is one of the tools being developed by IRIS-HEP for highly scalable physics analysis for the LHC and HL-LHC. FuncADL is demonstrated by implementing example analysis tasks designed by HSF and IRIS-HEP. Another language example is ADL, which expresses the physics content of an analysis in a standard and unambiguous way, independent of computing frameworks. In ADL, analyses are described in human-readable text files composed of blocks with a keyword-expression structure. Two infrastructures are available to render ADL executable: CutLang, a runtime interpreter written in C++; and adl2tnm, a transpiler converting ADL into C++ or Python code. ADL/CutLang are already used in several physics studies and educational projects, and are adapted for use with LHCmore »Open Data.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2024
  8. Abstract The reconstruction of the trajectories of charged particles, or track reconstruction, is a key computational challenge for particle and nuclear physics experiments. While the tuning of track reconstruction algorithms can depend strongly on details of the detector geometry, the algorithms currently in use by experiments share many common features. At the same time, the intense environment of the High-Luminosity LHC accelerator and other future experiments is expected to put even greater computational stress on track reconstruction software, motivating the development of more performant algorithms. We present here A Common Tracking Software (ACTS) toolkit, which draws on the experience with track reconstruction algorithms in the ATLAS experiment and presents them in an experiment-independent and framework-independent toolkit. It provides a set of high-level track reconstruction tools which are agnostic to the details of the detection technologies and magnetic field configuration and tested for strict thread-safety to support multi-threaded event processing. We discuss the conceptual design and technical implementation of ACTS, selected applications and performance of ACTS, and the lessons learned.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 30, 2023
  10. Abstract The High Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) will produce particle collisions with up to 200 simultaneous proton-proton interactions. These unprecedented conditions will create a combinatorial complexity for charged-particle track reconstruction that demands a computational cost that is expected to surpass the projected computing budget using conventional CPUs. Motivated by this and taking into account the prevalence of heterogeneous computing in cutting-edge High Performance Computing centers, we propose an efficient, fast and highly parallelizable bottom-up approach to track reconstruction for the HL-LHC, along with an associated implementation on GPUs, in the context of the Phase 2 CMS outer tracker. Our algorithm, called Segment Linking (or Line Segment Tracking), takes advantage of localized track stub creation, combining individual stubs to progressively form higher level objects that are subject to kinematical and geometrical requirements compatible with genuine physics tracks. The local nature of the algorithm makes it ideal for parallelization under the Single Instruction, Multiple Data paradigm, as hundreds of objects can be built simultaneously. The computing and physics performance of the algorithm has been tested on an NVIDIA Tesla V100 GPU, already yielding efficiency and timing measurements that are on par with the latest, multi-CPU versions of existingmore »CMS tracking algorithms.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2023