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  1. Abstract

    Recent years have seen the rapid growth of new approaches to optical imaging, with an emphasis on extracting three-dimensional (3D) information from what is normally a two-dimensional (2D) image capture. Perhaps most importantly, the rise of computational imaging enables both new physical layouts of optical components and new algorithms to be implemented. This paper concerns the convergence of two advances: the development of a transparent focal stack imaging system using graphene photodetector arrays, and the rapid expansion of the capabilities of machine learning including the development of powerful neural networks. This paper demonstrates 3D tracking of point-like objects with multilayer feedforward neural networks and the extension to tracking positions of multi-point objects. Computer simulations further demonstrate how this optical system can track extended objects in 3D, highlighting the promise of combining nanophotonic devices, new optical system designs, and machine learning for new frontiers in 3D imaging.

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  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 26, 2024
  3. Image security is becoming an increasingly important issue due to advances in deep learning based image manipulations, such as deep image inpainting and deepfakes. There has been considerable work to date on detecting such image manipulations using improved algorithms, with little attention paid to the possible role that hardware advances may have for improving security. We propose to use a focal stack camera as a novel secure imaging device, to the best of our knowledge, that facilitates localizing modified regions in manipulated images. We show that applying convolutional neural network detection methods to focal stack images achieves significantly better detection accuracy compared to single image based forgery detection. This work demonstrates that focal stack images could be used as a novel secure image file format and opens up a new direction for secure imaging.

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  4. Vapnik-Chervonenkis (VC) theory has so far been unable to explain the small generalization error of overparametrized neural networks. Indeed, existing applications of VC theory to large networks obtain upper bounds on VC dimension that are proportional to the number of weights, and for a large class of networks, these upper bound are known to be tight. In this work, we focus on a subclass of partially quantized networks that we refer to as hyperplane arrangement neural networks (HANNs). Using a sample compression analysis, we show that HANNs can have VC dimension significantly smaller than the number of weights, while being highly expressive. In particular, empirical risk minimization over HANNs in the overparametrized regime achieves the minimax rate for classification with Lipschitz posterior class probability. We further demonstrate the expressivity of HANNs empirically. On a panel of 121 UCI datasets, overparametrized HANNs match the performance of state-of-the-art full precision models. 
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  5. Low-rank Matrix Completion (LRMC) describes the problem where we wish to recover missing entries of partially observed low-rank matrix. Most existing matrix completion work deals with sampling procedures that are independent of the underlying data values. While this assumption allows the derivation of nice theoretical guarantees, it seldom holds in real-world applications. In this paper, we consider various settings where the sampling mask is dependent on the underlying data values, motivated by applications in sensing, sequential decision-making, and recommender systems. Through a series of experiments, we study and compare the performance of various LRMC algorithms that were originally successful for data-independent sampling patterns. 
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