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  1. Abstract

    We introduce theReverseSpatial Top-kKeyword (RSK)query, which is defined as:given a query term q, an integer k and a neighborhood size find all the neighborhoods of that size where q is in the top-k most frequent terms among the social posts in those neighborhoods. An obvious approach would be to partition the dataset with a uniform grid structure of a given cell size and identify the cells where this term is in the top-k most frequent keywords. However, this answer would be incomplete since it only checks for neighborhoods that are perfectly aligned with the grid. Furthermore, for every neighborhood (square) that is an answer, we can define infinitely more result neighborhoods by minimally shifting the square without including more posts in it. To address that, we need to identify contiguous regions where any point in the region can be the center of a neighborhood that satisfies the query. We propose an algorithm to efficiently answer an RSK query using an index structure consisting of a uniform grid augmented by materialized lists of term frequencies. We apply various optimizations that drastically improve query latency against baseline approaches. We also provide a theoretical model to choose the optimal cell size for the index to minimize query latency. We further examine a restricted version of the problem (RSKR) that limits the scope of the answer and propose efficientapproximatealgorithms. Finally, we examine how parallelism can improve performance by balancing the workload using a smartload slicingtechnique. Extensive experimental performance evaluation of the proposed methods using real Twitter datasets and crime report datasets, shows the efficiency of our optimizations and the accuracy of the proposed theoretical model.

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  2. Abstract

    Today, data is being actively generated by a variety of devices, services, and applications. Such data is important not only for the information that it contains, but also for its relationships to other data and to interested users. Most existing Big Data systems focus onpassivelyanswering queries from users, rather thanactivelycollecting data, processing it, and serving it to users. To satisfy both passive and active requests at scale, application developers need either to heavily customize an existing passive Big Data system or to glue one together with systems likeStreaming EnginesandPub-sub services. Either choice requires significant effort and incurs additional overhead. In this paper, we present the BAD (Big Active Data) system as an end-to-end, out-of-the-box solution for this challenge. It is designed to preserve the merits of passive Big Data systems and introduces new features for actively serving Big Data to users at scale. We show the design and implementation of the BAD system, demonstrate how BAD facilitates providing both passive and active data services, investigate the BAD system’s performance at scale, and illustrate the complexities that would result from instead providing BAD-like services with a “glued” system.

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  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  4. This paper studies the spatial group-by query over complex polygons. Given a set of spatial points and a set of polygons, the spatial group-by query returns the number of points that lie within the boundaries of each polygon. Groups are selected from a set of non-overlapping complex polygons, typically in the order of thousands, while the input is a large-scale dataset that contains hundreds of millions or even billions of spatial points. This problem is challenging because real polygons (like counties, cities, postal codes, voting regions, etc.) are described by very complex boundaries. We propose a highly-parallelized query processing framework to efficiently compute the spatial group-by query on highly skewed spatial data. We also propose an effective query optimizer that adaptively assigns the appropriate processing scheme based on the query polygons. Our experimental evaluation with real data and queries has shown significant superiority over all existing techniques. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  5. ABSTRACT The Doubly Connected Edge List (DCEL) is an edge-list structure that has been widely utilized in spatial applications for planar topological computations. An important operation is the overlay which combines the DCELs of two input layers and can easily support spatial queries like the intersection, union and difference between these layers. However, existing sequential implementations for computing the overlay do not scale and fail to complete for large datasets (for example the US census tracks). In this paper we propose a distributed and scalable way to compute the overlay operation and its related supported queries. We address the issues involved in efficiently distributing the overlay operator and over various optimizations that improve performance. Our scalable solution can compute the overlay of very large real datasets (32M edges) in few minutes. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 23, 2024
  6. With the requirements to enable data analytics and exploration interactively and efficiently, progressive data processing, especially progressive join, became essential to data science. Join queries are particularly challenging due to the correlation between input datasets which causes the results to be biased towards some join keys. Existing methods carefully control which parts of the input to process in order to improve the quality of progressive results. If the quality is not satisfactory, they will process more data to improve the result. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach that initially seems counter-intuitive but surprisingly works very well. After query processing, we intentionally report fewer results to the user with the goal of improving the quality. The key idea is that if the output is deviated from the correct distribution, we temporarily hide some results to correct the bias. As we process more data, the hidden results are inserted back until the full dataset is processed. The main challenge is that we do not know the correct output distribution while the progressive query is running. In this work, we formally define the progressive join problem with quality and progressive result rate constraints. We propose an input&output quality-aware progressive join framework (QPJ) that (1) provides input control that decides which parts of the input to process; (2) estimates the final result distribution progressively; (3) automatically controls the quality of the progressive output rate; and (4) combines input&output control to enable quality control of the progressive results. We compare QPJ with existing methods and show QPJ can provide the progressive output that can represent the final answer better than existing methods. 
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  7. Effective query optimization remains an open problem for Big Data Management Systems. In this work, we revisit an old idea, runtime dynamic optimization, and adapt it to a big data management system, AsterixDB. The approach runs in stages (re-optimization points), starting by first executing all predicates local to a single dataset. The intermediate result created by a stage is then used to re-optimize the remaining query. This re-optimization approach avoids inaccurate intermediate result cardinality estimates, thus leading to much better execution plans. While it introduces overhead for materializing intermediate results, experiments show that this overhead is relatively small and is an acceptable price to pay given the optimization benefits. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 7, 2024
  8. The popularity of JSON as a data interchange format resulted in big amounts of datasets available for processing. Users would like to analyze this data using SQL queries but existing distributed systems limit their users to only two specific formats, JSONLine and GeoJSON. The complexity of JSON schema makes it challenging to parse arbitrary files in a modern distributed system while producing records with unified schema that can be processed with SQL. To address these challenges, this paper introduces dsJSON, a state-of-the-art distributed JSON processor that overcomes limitations in existing systems and scales to big and complex data. dsJSON introduces the projection tree, a novel data structure that applies selective parsing of nested attributes to produce records that are ready for SQL processors. The key objective of the projection tree is to parse a big JSON file in parallel to produce records with a unified schema that can be processed with SQL. dsJSON is integrated into SparkSQL which enables users to run arbitrary SQL queries on complex JSON files. It also pushes projection and filter down into the parser for full integration between the parser and the processor. Experiments on up-to two terabytes of real data show that dsJSON performs several times faster than existing systems. It can also efficiently parse extremely large files not supported by existing distributed parsers 
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  9. Geospatial data comprise around 60% of all the publicly available data. One of the essential and most complex operations that brings together multiple geospatial datasets is the spatial join operation. Due to its complexity, there is a lot of partitioning techniques and parallel algorithms for the spatial join problem. This leads to a complex query optimization problem: which algorithm to use for a given pair of input datasets that we want to join? With the rise of machine learning, there is a promise in addressing this problem with the use of various learned models. However, one of the concerns is the lack of standard and publicly available data to train and test on, as well as the lack of accessible baseline models. This resource paper helps the research community solve this problem by providing synthetic and real datasets for spatial join, source code for constructing more datasets, and several baseline solutions that researchers can further extend and compare to. 
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