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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023
  2. We conducted a survey of 67 graduate students enrolled in the Privacy and Security in Healthcare course at Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis. This was done to measure user preference and their understanding of usability and security of three different Electronic Health Records authentication methods: single authentication method (username and password), Single sign-on with Central Authentication Service (CAS) authentication method, and a bio-capsule facial authentication method. This research aims to explore the relationship between security and usability, and measure the effect of perceived security on usability in these three aforementioned authentication methods. We developed a formative-formative Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) model to measure the relationship between the latent variables of Usability, and Security. The measurement model was developed using five observed variables (measures). - Efficiency and Effectiveness, Satisfaction, Preference, Concerns, and Confidence. The results obtained highlight the importance and impact of these measures on the latent variables and the relationship among the latent variables. From the PLS-SEM analysis, it was found that security has a positive impact on usability for Single sign-on and bio-capsule facial authentication methods. We conclude that the facial authentication method was the most secure and usable among the three authentication methods. Further, descriptivemore »analysis was done to draw out the interesting findings from the survey regarding the observed variables.« less