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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  2. Circadian rhythms influence multiple essential biological activities, including sleep, performance, and mood. The dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) is the gold standard for measuring human circadian phase (i.e., timing). The collection of DLMO is expensive and time consuming since multiple saliva or blood samples are required overnight in special conditions, and the samples must then be assayed for melatonin. Recently, several computational approaches have been designed for estimating DLMO. These methods collect daily sampled data (e.g., sleep onset/offset times) or frequently sampled data (e.g., light exposure/skin temperature/physical activity collected every minute) to train learning models for estimating DLMO. One limitation of these studies is that they only leverage one time-scale data. We propose a two-step framework for estimating DLMO using data from both time scales. The first step summarizes data from before the current day, whereas the second step combines this summary with frequently sampled data of the current day. We evaluate three moving average models that input sleep timing data as the first step and use recurrent neural network models as the second step. The results using data from 207 undergraduates show that our two-step model with two time-scale features has statistically significantly lower root-mean-square errors than models thatmore »use either daily sampled data or frequently sampled data.« less
  3. A schizophrenia relapse has severe consequences for a patient’s health, work, and sometimes even life safety. If an oncoming relapse can be predicted on time, for example by detecting early behavioral changes in patients, then interventions could be provided to prevent the relapse. In this work, we investigated a machine learning based schizophrenia relapse prediction model using mobile sensing data to characterize behavioral features. A patient-independent model providing sequential predictions, closely representing the clinical deployment scenario for relapse prediction, was evaluated. The model uses the mobile sensing data from the recent four weeks to predict an oncoming relapse in the next week. We used the behavioral rhythm features extracted from daily templates of mobile sensing data, self-reported symptoms collected via EMA (Ecological Momentary Assessment), and demographics to compare different classifiers for the relapse prediction. Naive Bayes based model gave the best results with an F2 score of 0.083 when evaluated in a dataset consisting of 63 schizophrenia patients, each monitored for up to a year. The obtained F2 score, though low, is better than the baseline performance of random classification (F2 score of 0.02 ± 0.024). Thus, mobile sensing has predictive value for detecting an oncoming relapse and needs furthermore »investigation to improve the current performance. Towards that end, further feature engineering and model personalization based on the behavioral idiosyncrasies of a patient could be helpful.« less
  4. Shift workers who are essential contributors to our society, face high risks of poor health and wellbeing. To help with their problems, we collected and analyzed physiological and behavioral wearable sensor data from shift working nurses and doctors, as well as their behavioral questionnaire data and their self-reported daily health and wellbeing labels, including alertness, happiness, energy, health, and stress. We found the similarities and differences between the responses of nurses and doctors. According to the differences in self-reported health and wellbeing labels between nurses and doctors, and the correlations among their labels, we proposed a job-role based multitask and multilabel deep learning model, where we modeled physiological and behavioral data for nurses and doctors simultaneously to predict participants’ next day’s multidimensional self-reported health and wellbeing status. Our model showed significantly better performances than baseline models and previous state-of-the-art models in the evaluations of binary/3-class classification and regression prediction tasks. We also found features related to heart rate, sleep, and work shift contributed to shift workers’ health and wellbeing.
  5. Background Shift work sleep disorders (SWSDs) are associated with the high turnover rates of nurses, and are considered a major medical safety issue. However, initial management can be hampered by insufficient awareness. In recent years, it has become possible to visualize, collect, and analyze the work-life balance of health care workers with irregular sleeping and working habits using wearable sensors that can continuously monitor biometric data under real-life settings. In addition, internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy for psychiatric disorders has been shown to be effective. Application of wearable sensors and machine learning may potentially enhance the beneficial effects of internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy. Objective In this study, we aim to develop and evaluate the effect of a new internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy for SWSD (iCBTS). This system includes current methods such as medical sleep advice, as well as machine learning well-being prediction to improve the sleep durations of shift workers and prevent declines in their well-being. Methods This study consists of two phases: (1) preliminary data collection and machine learning for well-being prediction; (2) intervention and evaluation of iCBTS for SWSD. Shift workers in the intensive care unit at Mie University Hospital will wear a wearable sensor that collects biometric datamore »and answer daily questionnaires regarding their well-being. They will subsequently be provided with an iCBTS app for 4 weeks. Sleep and well-being measurements between baseline and the intervention period will be compared. Results Recruitment for phase 1 ended in October 2019. Recruitment for phase 2 has started in October 2020. Preliminary results are expected to be available by summer 2021. Conclusions iCBTS empowered with well-being prediction is expected to improve the sleep durations of shift workers, thereby enhancing their overall well-being. Findings of this study will reveal the potential of this system for improving sleep disorders among shift workers. Trial Registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000036122 (phase 1), UMIN000040547 (phase 2);, International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID) DERR1-10.2196/24799« less
  6. Abstract Schizophrenia is a severe and complex psychiatric disorder with heterogeneous and dynamic multi-dimensional symptoms. Behavioral rhythms, such as sleep rhythm, are usually disrupted in people with schizophrenia. As such, behavioral rhythm sensing with smartphones and machine learning can help better understand and predict their symptoms. Our goal is to predict fine-grained symptom changes with interpretable models. We computed rhythm-based features from 61 participants with 6,132 days of data and used multi-task learning to predict their ecological momentary assessment scores for 10 different symptom items. By taking into account both the similarities and differences between different participants and symptoms, our multi-task learning models perform statistically significantly better than the models trained with single-task learning for predicting patients’ individual symptom trajectories, such as feeling depressed, social, and calm and hearing voices. We also found different subtypes for each of the symptoms by applying unsupervised clustering to the feature weights in the models. Taken together, compared to the features used in the previous studies, our rhythm features not only improved models’ prediction accuracy but also provided better interpretability for how patients’ behavioral rhythms and the rhythms of their environments influence their symptom conditions. This will enable both the patients and clinicians tomore »monitor how these factors affect a patient’s condition and how to mitigate the influence of these factors. As such, we envision that our solution allows early detection and early intervention before a patient’s condition starts deteriorating without requiring extra effort from patients and clinicians.« less