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  1. Abstract

    Plate motions in Southern California have undergone a transition from compressional and extensional regimes to a dominantly strike‐slip regime in the Miocene. Strike‐slip motion is most easily accommodated on vertical faults, and major transform fault strands in the region are typically mapped as near vertical on the surface. However, some previous work suggests that these faults have a dipping geometry at depth. We analyze receiver function arrivals that vary harmonically with back azimuth at all available broadband stations in the region. The results show a dominant signal from contrasts in dipping foliation as well as dipping isotropic velocity contrasts from all crustal depths, including from the ductile middle to lower crust. We interpret these receiver function observations as a dipping fault‐parallel structural fabric that is pervasive throughout the region. The strike of these structures and fabrics is parallel to that of nearby fault surface traces. We also plot microseismicity on depth profiles perpendicular to major strike‐slip faults and find consistently NE dipping features in seismicity changing from near vertical (80–85°) on the Elsinore Fault in the Peninsular Ranges to 60–65° slightly further inland on the San Jacinto Fault to 50–55° on the San Andreas Fault. Taken together, the dipping features in seismicity and in rock fabric suggest that preexisting fabrics and faults may have acted as strain guides in the modern slip regime, with reactivation and growth of strike‐slip faults along northeast dipping fabrics both above and below the brittle‐ductile transition.

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  2. Abstract

    We use Eikonal tomography to derive phase and group velocities of surface waves for the plate boundary region in Southern California. Seismic noise data in the period range 2 and 20 s recorded in year 2014 by 346 stations with ~1‐ to 30‐km station spacing are analyzed. Rayleigh and Love wave phase travel times are measured using vertical‐vertical and transverse‐transverse noise cross correlations, and group travel times are derived from the phase measurements. Using the Eikonal equation for each location and period, isotropic phase and group velocities and 2‐psi azimuthal anisotropy are determined statistically with measurements from different virtual sources. Starting with the SCEC Community Velocity Model, the observed 2.5‐ to 16‐s isotropic phase and group dispersion curves are jointly inverted on a 0.05° × 0.05° grid to obtain local 1‐D piecewise shear wave velocity (Vs) models. Compared to the starting model, the final results have generally lowerVsin the shallow crust (top 3–10 km), particularly in areas such as basins and fault zones. The results also show clear velocity contrasts across the San Andreas, San Jacinto, Elsinore, and Garlock Faults and suggest that the San Andreas Fault southeast of San Gorgonio Pass is dipping to the northeast. Investigation of the nonuniqueness of the 1‐DVsinversion suggests that imaging the top 3‐kmVsstructure requires either shorter period (≤2 s) surface wave dispersion measurements or other types of data set such as Rayleigh wave ellipticity.

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  3. Abstract We discuss general structural features of the Banning and Mission Creek strands (BF and MCF) of the southern San Andreas fault (SSAF) in the Coachella Valley, based on ambient noise and earthquake wavefields recorded by a seismic array with >300 nodes. Earthquake P arrivals show rapid changes in waveform characteristics over 20–40 m zones that coincide with the surface BF and MCF. These variations indicate that the BF and MCF are high-impedance contrast interfaces—an observation supported by the presence of seismic reflections. Another prominent but more diffuse change in SSAF structure is found ∼1 km northeast of the BF. This feature has average-to-low arrival times (P and S) and ambient noise levels (at <30 Hz), and likely represents a relatively fast velocity block sandwiched between broader MCF and BF zones. The maximal arrival delays (P ∼0.1 s and S ∼0.25 s) and the highest ambient noise levels (>2 times median) are consistently observed southwest of the BF—a combined effect of Coachella Valley sediments and rock damage on that side. Immediately northeast of the MCF, large S minus P delays suggest a broad high VP/VS zone associated with asymmetric rock damage across the SSAF. This general overview shows the BF and MCF as mature but distinctly different fault zones. Future analyses will further clarify these and other SSAF features in greater detail. 
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