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Space plasma studies frequently use in situ magnetic field measurements taken from many spacecraft simultaneously. A useful data product of these measurements is the reconstructed magnetic field in a volume near the spacecraft observatory. We compare a standard Linear method of computing the magnetic field at arbitrary spatial points to two novel approaches: a Radial Basis Function interpolation and a time‐dependent 2D inverse distance weighted interpolation scheme called Timesync. These three methods, which only require in situ measurements of the magnetic fields and bulk plasma velocities at a sparse set of spatial points, are implemented on synthetic data drawn from a time‐evolving numerical simulation of plasma turbulence. We compare both the topology of the reconstructed field to the ground truth of the simulation and the statistics of the fluctuations found in the reconstructed field to those from the simulated turbulence. We conclude that the Radial Basis Function and Timesync methods outperform the Linear method in both topological and statistical comparisons.more » « lessFree, publiclyaccessible full text available March 1, 2025

Particle energization due to magnetic reconnection is an important unsolved problem for myriad space and astrophysical plasmas. Electron energization in magnetic reconnection has traditionally been examined from a particle, or Lagrangian, perspective using particleincell (PIC) simulations. Guidingcenter analyses of ensembles of PIC particles have suggested that Fermi (curvature drift) acceleration and direct acceleration via the reconnection electric field are the primary electron energization mechanisms. However, both PIC guidingcenter ensemble analyses and spacecraft observations are performed in an Eulerian perspective. For this work, we employ the continuum Vlasov–Maxwell solver within the Gkeyll simulation framework to reexamine electron energization from a kinetic continuum, Eulerian, perspective. We separately examine the contribution of each drift energization component to determine the dominant electron energization mechanisms in a moderate guidefield Gkeyll reconnection simulation. In the Eulerian perspective, we find that the diamagnetic and agyrotropic drifts are the primary electron energization mechanisms away from the reconnection xpoint, where direct acceleration dominates. We compare the Eulerian (Vlasov Gkeyll) results with the wisdom gained from Lagrangian (PIC) analyses.more » « lessFree, publiclyaccessible full text available February 1, 2025

Magnetic reconnection plays an important role in the release of magnetic energy and consequent energization of particles in collisionless plasmas. Energy transfer in collisionless magnetic reconnection is inherently a twostep process: reversible, collisionless energization of particles by the electric field, followed by collisional thermalization of that energy, leading to irreversible plasma heating. Gyrokinetic numerical simulations are used to explore the first step of electron energization, and we generate the first examples of field–particle correlation signatures of electron energization in 2D strongguidefield collisionless magnetic reconnection. We determine these velocity space signatures at the xpoint and in the exhaust, the regions of the reconnection geometry in which the electron energization primarily occurs. Modeling of these velocity–space signatures shows that, in the strongguidefield limit, the energization of electrons occurs through bulk acceleration of the outofplane electron flow by the parallel electric field that drives the reconnection, a nonresonant mechanism of energization. We explore the variation of these velocity–space signatures over the plasma beta range 0.01≤βi≤1. Our analysis goes beyond the fluid picture of the plasma dynamics and exploits the kinetic features of electron energization in the exhaust region to propose a singlepoint diagnostic, which can potentially identify a reconnection exhaust region using spacecraft observations.more » « less