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  1. The goal of automatic resource bound analysis is to statically infer symbolic bounds on the resource consumption of the evaluation of a program. A longstanding challenge for automatic resource analysis is the inference of bounds that are functions of complex custom data structures. This article builds on type-based automatic amortized resource analysis (AARA) to address this challenge. AARA is based on the potential method of amortized analysis and reduces bound inference to standard type inference with additional linear constraint solving, even when deriving non-linear bounds. A key component of AARA is resource functions that generate the space of possible bounds for values of a given type while enjoying necessary closure properties. Existing work on AARA defined such functions for many data structures such as lists of lists but the question of whether such functions exist for arbitrary data structures remained open. This work answers this questions positively by uniformly constructing resource polynomials for algebraic data structures defined by regular recursive types. These functions are a generalization of all previously proposed polynomial resource functions and can be seen as a general notion of polynomials for values of a given recursive type. A resource type system for FPC, a core language with recursive types, demonstrates how resource polynomials can be integrated with AARA while preserving all benefits of past techniques. The article also proposes the use of new techniques useful for stating the rules of this type system and proving it sound. First, multivariate potential annotations are stated in terms of free semimodules, substantially abstracting details of the presentation of annotations and the proofs of their properties. Second, a logical relation giving semantic meaning to resource types enables a proof of soundness by a single induction on typing derivations. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  2. Session types guarantee that message-passing processes adhere to predefined communication protocols. Prior work on session types has focused on deterministic languages but many message-passing systems, such as Markov chains and randomized distributed algorithms, are probabilistic. To implement and analyze such systems, this article develops the meta theory of probabilistic session types with an application focus on automatic expected resource analysis. Probabilistic session types describe probability distributions over messages and are a conservative extension of intuitionistic (binary) session types. To send on a probabilistic channel, processes have to utilize internal randomness from a probabilistic branching or external randomness from receiving on a probabilistic channel. The analysis for expected resource bounds is smoothly integrated with the type system and is a variant of automatic amortized resource analysis. Type inference relies on linear constraint solving to automatically derive symbolic bounds for various cost metrics. The technical contributions include the meta theory that is based on a novel nested multiverse semantics and a type-reconstruction algorithm that allows flexible mixing of different sources of randomness without burdening the programmer with complex type annotations. The type system has been implemented in the language NomosPro with linear-time type checking. Experiments demonstrate that NomosPro is applicable in different domains such as cost analysis of randomized distributed algorithms, analysis of Markov chains, probabilistic analysis of amortized data structures and digital contracts. NomosPro is also shown to be scalable by (i) implementing two broadcast and a bounded retransmission protocol where messages are dropped with a fixed probability, and (ii) verifying the limiting distribution of a Markov chain with 64 states and 420 transitions. 
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  3. This article gives an overview of automatic amortized resource analysis (AARA), a technique for inferring symbolic resource bounds for programs at compile time. AARA has been introduced by Hofmann and Jost in 2003 as a type system for deriving linear worst-case bounds on the heap-space consumption of first-order functional programs with eager evaluation strategy. Since then AARA has been the subject of dozens of research articles, which extended the analysis to different resource metrics, other evaluation strategies, non-linear bounds, and additional language features. All these works preserved the defining characteristics of the original paper: local inference rules, which reduce bound inference to numeric (usually linear) optimization; a soundness proof with respect to an operational cost semantics; and the support of amortized analysis with the potential method. 
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  4. null (Ed.)
    We present a novel method for working with the physicist's method of amortized resource analysis, which we call the quantum physicist's method. These principles allow for more precise analyses of resources that are not monotonically consumed, like stack. This method takes its name from its two major features, worldviews and resource tunneling, which behave analogously to quantum superposition and quantum tunneling. We use the quantum physicist's method to extend the Automatic Amortized Resource Analysis (AARA) type system, enabling the derivation of resource bounds based on tree depth. In doing so, we also introduce remainder contexts, which aid bookkeeping in linear type systems. We then evaluate this new type system's performance by bounding stack use of functions in the Set module of OCaml's standard library. Compared to state-of-the-art implementations of AARA, our new system derives tighter bounds with only moderate overhead. 
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  5. null (Ed.)
    Probabilistic programming languages aim to describe and automate Bayesian modeling and inference. Modern languages support programmable inference, which allows users to customize inference algorithms by incorporating guide programs to improve inference performance. For Bayesian inference to be sound, guide programs must be compatible with model programs. One pervasive but challenging condition for model-guide compatibility is absolute continuity, which requires that the model and guide programs define probability distributions with the same support. This paper presents a new probabilistic programming language that guarantees absolute continuity, and features general programming constructs, such as branching and recursion. Model and guide programs are implemented as coroutines that communicate with each other to synchronize the set of random variables they sample during their execution. Novel guide types describe and enforce communication protocols between coroutines. If the model and guide are well-typed using the same protocol, then they are guaranteed to enjoy absolute continuity. An efficient algorithm infers guide types from code so that users do not have to specify the types. The new programming language is evaluated with an implementation that includes the type-inference algorithm and a prototype compiler that targets Pyro. Experiments show that our language is capable of expressing a variety of probabilistic models with nontrivial control flow and recursion, and that the coroutine-based computation does not introduce significant overhead in actual Bayesian inference. 
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  6. null (Ed.)
    For probabilistic programs, it is usually not possible to automatically derive exact information about their properties, such as the distribution of states at a given program point. Instead, one can attempt to derive approximations, such as upper bounds on tail probabilities. Such bounds can be obtained via concentration inequalities, which rely on the moments of a distribution, such as the expectation (the first raw moment) or the variance (the second central moment). Tail bounds obtained using central moments are often tighter than the ones obtained using raw moments, but automatically analyzing central moments is more challenging. This paper presents an analysis for probabilistic programs that automatically derives symbolic upper and lower bounds on variances, as well as higher central moments, of cost accumulators. To overcome the challenges of higher-moment analysis, it generalizes analyses for expectations with an algebraic abstraction that simultaneously analyzes different moments, utilizing relations between them. A key innovation is the notion of moment-polymorphic recursion, and a practical derivation system that handles recursive functions. The analysis has been implemented using a template-based technique that reduces the inference of polynomial bounds to linear programming. Experiments with our prototype central-moment analyzer show that, despite the analyzer’s upper/lower bounds on various quantities, it obtains tighter tail bounds than an existing system that uses only raw moments, such as expectations. 
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  7. null (Ed.)
    Programming digital contracts comes with unique challenges, which include (i) expressing and enforcing protocols of interaction, (ii) controlling resource usage, and (iii) preventing the duplication or deletion of a contract's assets. This article presents the design and type-theoretic foundation of Nomos, a programming language for digital contracts that addresses these challenges. To express and enforce protocols, Nomos is based on shared binary session types. To control resource usage, Nomos employs automatic amortized resource analysis. To prevent the duplication or deletion of assets, Nomos uses a linear type system. A monad integrates the effectful session-typed language with a general-purpose functional language. Nomos' prototype implementation features linear-time type checking and efficient type reconstruction that includes automatic inference of resource bounds via off-the-shelf linear optimization. The effectiveness of the language is evaluated with case studies on implementing common smart contracts such as auctions, elections, and currencies. Nomos is completely formalized, including the type system, a cost semantics, and a transactional semantics to deploy Nomos contracts on a blockchain. The type soundness proof ensures that protocols are followed at run-time and that types establish sound upper bounds on the resource consumption, ruling out re-entrancy and out-of-gas vulnerabilities. 
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  8. Baier, Christel ; Goubault-Larrecq, Jean (Ed.)
    Being a fully automated technique for resource analysis, automatic amortized resource analysis (AARA) can fail in returning worst-case cost bounds of programs, fundamentally due to the undecidability of resource analysis. For programmers who are unfamiliar with the technical details of AARA, it is difficult to predict whether a program can be successfully analyzed in AARA. Motivated by this problem, this article identifies classes of programs that can be analyzed in type-based polynomial AARA. Firstly, it is shown that the set of functions that are typable in univariate polynomial AARA coincides with the complexity class PTime. Secondly, the article presents a sufficient condition for typability that axiomatically requires every sub-expression of a given program to be polynomial-time. It is proved that this condition implies typability in multivariate polynomial AARA under some syntactic restrictions. 
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  9. null (Ed.)
    This paper presents λ-amor, a new type-theoretic framework for amortized cost analysis of higher-order functional programs and shows that existing type systems for cost analysis can be embedded in it. λ-amor introduces a new modal type for representing potentials – costs that have been accounted for, but not yet incurred, which are central to amortized analysis. Additionally, λ-amor relies on standard type-theoretic concepts like affineness, refinement types and an indexed cost monad. λ-amor is proved sound using a rather simple logical relation. We embed two existing type systems for cost analysis in λ-amor showing that, despite its simplicity, λ-amor can simulate cost analysis for different evaluation strategies (call-by-name and call-by-value), in different styles (effect-based and coeffect-based), and with or without amortization. One of the embeddings also implies that λ-amor is relatively complete for all terminating PCF programs. 
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  10. This article presents a type-based analysis for deriving upper bounds on the expected execution cost of probabilistic programs. The analysis is naturally compositional, parametric in the cost model, and supports higher-order functions and inductive data types. The derived bounds are multivariate polynomials that are functions of data structures. Bound inference is enabled by local type rules that reduce type inference to linear constraint solving. The type system is based on the potential method of amortized analysis and extends automatic amortized resource analysis (AARA) for deterministic programs. A main innovation is that bounds can contain symbolic probabilities, which may appear in data structures and function arguments. Another contribution is a novel soundness proof that establishes the correctness of the derived bounds with respect to a distribution-based operational cost semantics that also includes nontrivial diverging behavior. For cost models like time, derived bounds imply termination with probability one. To highlight the novel ideas, the presentation focuses on linear potential and a core language. However, the analysis is implemented as an extension of Resource Aware ML and supports polynomial bounds and user defined data structures. The effectiveness of the technique is evaluated by analyzing the sample complexity of discrete distributions and with a novel average-case estimation for deterministic programs that combines expected cost analysis with statistical methods. 
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