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  1. Tet1 protects against house dust mite (HDM)-induced lung inflammation in mice and alters the lung methylome and transcriptome. In order to explore the role of Tet1 in individual lung epithelial cell types in HDM-induced inflammation, we established a model of HDM-induced lung inflammation in Tet1 knockout and littermate wild-type mice, then studied EpCAM+ lung epithelial cells using single-cell RNA-seq analysis. We identified eight EpCAM+ lung epithelial cell types, among which AT2 cells were the most abundant. HDM challenge altered the relative abundance of epithelial cell types and resulted in cell type-specific transcriptomic changes. Bulk and cell type-specific analysis also showedmore »that loss of Tet1 led to the altered expression of genes linked to augmented HDM-induced lung inflammation, including alarms, detoxification enzymes, oxidative stress response genes, and tissue repair genes. The transcriptomic regulation was accompanied by alterations in TF activities. Trajectory analysis supports that HDM may enhance the differentiation of AP and BAS cells into AT2 cells, independent of Tet1. Collectively, our data showed that lung epithelial cells had common and unique transcriptomic signatures of allergic lung inflammation. Tet1 deletion altered transcriptomic networks in various lung epithelial cells, which may promote allergen-induced lung inflammation.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  2. Multi-modal single cell RNA assays capture RNA content as well as other data modalities, such as spatial cell position or the electrophysiological properties of cells. Compared to dedicated scRNA-seq assays however, they may unintentionally capture RNA from multiple adjacent cells, exhibit lower RNA sequencing depth compared to scRNA-seq, or lack genome-wide RNA measurements. We present scProjection, a method for mapping individual multi-modal RNA measurements to deeply sequenced scRNA-seq atlases to extract cell type-specific, single cell gene expression profiles. We demonstrate several use cases of scProjection, including the identification of spatial motifs from spatial transcriptome assays, distinguishing RNA contributions from neighboringmore »cells in both spatial and multi-modal single cell assays, and imputing expression measurements of un-measured genes from gene markers. scProjection therefore combines the advantages of both multi-modal and scRNA-seq assays to yield precise multi-modal measurements of single cells.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  3. Deep neural networks implementing generative models for dimensionality reduction have been extensively used for the visualization and analysis of genomic data. One of their key limitations is lack of interpretability: it is challenging to quantitatively identify which input features are used to construct the embedding dimensions, thus preventing insight into why cells are organized in a particular data visualization, for example. Here we present a scalable, interpretable variational autoencoder (siVAE) that is interpretable by design: it learns feature embeddings that guide the interpretation of the cell embeddings in a manner analogous to factor loadings of factor analysis. siVAE is asmore »powerful and nearly as fast to train as the standard VAE but achieves full interpretability of the embedding dimensions. Using siVAE, we exploit a number of connections between dimensionality reduction and gene network inference to identify gene neighborhoods and gene hubs, without the explicit need for gene network inference. We observe a systematic difference in the gene neighborhoods identified by dimensionality reduction methods and gene network inference algorithms in general, suggesting they provide complementary information about the underlying structure of the gene co-expression network. Finally, we apply siVAE to implicitly learn gene networks for individual iPSC lines and uncover a correlation between neuronal differentiation efficiency and loss of co-expression of several mitochondrial complexes, including NADH dehydrogenase, cytochrome C oxidase, and cytochrome b.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  4. Abstract Gene regulatory elements are central drivers of phenotypic variation and thus of critical importance towards understanding the genetics of complex traits. The Functional Annotation of Animal Genomes consortium was formed to collaboratively annotate the functional elements in animal genomes, starting with domesticated animals. Here we present an expansive collection of datasets from eight diverse tissues in three important agricultural species: chicken ( Gallus gallus ), pig ( Sus scrofa ), and cattle ( Bos taurus ). Comparative analysis of these datasets and those from the human and mouse Encyclopedia of DNA Elements projects reveal that a core set ofmore »regulatory elements are functionally conserved independent of divergence between species, and that tissue-specific transcription factor occupancy at regulatory elements and their predicted target genes are also conserved. These datasets represent a unique opportunity for the emerging field of comparative epigenomics, as well as the agricultural research community, including species that are globally important food resources.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  5. Synopsis The biological challenges facing humanity are complex, multi-factorial, and are intimately tied to the future of our health, welfare, and stewardship of the Earth. Tackling problems in diverse areas, such as agriculture, ecology, and health care require linking vast datasets that encompass numerous components and spatio-temporal scales. Here, we provide a new framework and a road map for using experiments and computation to understand dynamic biological systems that span multiple scales. We discuss theories that can help understand complex biological systems and highlight the limitations of existing methodologies and recommend data generation practices. The advent of new technologies suchmore »as big data analytics and artificial intelligence can help bridge different scales and data types. We recommend ways to make such models transparent, compatible with existing theories of biological function, and to make biological data sets readable by advanced machine learning algorithms. Overall, the barriers for tackling pressing biological challenges are not only technological, but also sociological. Hence, we also provide recommendations for promoting interdisciplinary interactions between scientists.« less