skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on May 1, 2023

Title: Single-Cell RNA-Seq Analysis Reveals Lung Epithelial Cell Type-Specific Responses to HDM and Regulation by Tet1
Tet1 protects against house dust mite (HDM)-induced lung inflammation in mice and alters the lung methylome and transcriptome. In order to explore the role of Tet1 in individual lung epithelial cell types in HDM-induced inflammation, we established a model of HDM-induced lung inflammation in Tet1 knockout and littermate wild-type mice, then studied EpCAM+ lung epithelial cells using single-cell RNA-seq analysis. We identified eight EpCAM+ lung epithelial cell types, among which AT2 cells were the most abundant. HDM challenge altered the relative abundance of epithelial cell types and resulted in cell type-specific transcriptomic changes. Bulk and cell type-specific analysis also showed that loss of Tet1 led to the altered expression of genes linked to augmented HDM-induced lung inflammation, including alarms, detoxification enzymes, oxidative stress response genes, and tissue repair genes. The transcriptomic regulation was accompanied by alterations in TF activities. Trajectory analysis supports that HDM may enhance the differentiation of AP and BAS cells into AT2 cells, independent of Tet1. Collectively, our data showed that lung epithelial cells had common and unique transcriptomic signatures of allergic lung inflammation. Tet1 deletion altered transcriptomic networks in various lung epithelial cells, which may promote allergen-induced lung inflammation.
; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract Background The BIN1 locus contains the second-most significant genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. BIN1 undergoes alternate splicing to generate tissue- and cell-type-specific BIN1 isoforms, which regulate membrane dynamics in a range of crucial cellular processes. Whilst the expression of BIN1 in the brain has been characterized in neurons and oligodendrocytes in detail, information regarding microglial BIN1 expression is mainly limited to large-scale transcriptomic and proteomic data. Notably, BIN1 protein expression and its functional roles in microglia, a cell type most relevant to Alzheimer’s disease, have not been examined in depth. Methods Microglial BIN1 expression was analyzed bymore »immunostaining mouse and human brain, as well as by immunoblot and RT-PCR assays of isolated microglia or human iPSC-derived microglial cells. Bin1 expression was ablated by siRNA knockdown in primary microglial cultures in vitro and Cre-lox mediated conditional deletion in adult mouse brain microglia in vivo. Regulation of neuroinflammatory microglial signatures by BIN1 in vitro and in vivo was characterized using NanoString gene panels and flow cytometry methods. The transcriptome data was explored by in silico pathway analysis and validated by complementary molecular approaches. Results Here, we characterized microglial BIN1 expression in vitro and in vivo and ascertained microglia expressed BIN1 isoforms. By silencing Bin1 expression in primary microglial cultures, we demonstrate that BIN1 regulates the activation of proinflammatory and disease-associated responses in microglia as measured by gene expression and cytokine production. Our transcriptomic profiling revealed key homeostatic and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response pathways, as well as transcription factors PU.1 and IRF1 that are regulated by BIN1. Microglia-specific Bin1 conditional knockout in vivo revealed novel roles of BIN1 in regulating the expression of disease-associated genes while counteracting CX3CR1 signaling. The consensus from in vitro and in vivo findings showed that loss of Bin1 impaired the ability of microglia to mount type 1 interferon responses to proinflammatory challenge, particularly the upregulation of a critical type 1 immune response gene, Ifitm3 . Conclusions Our convergent findings provide novel insights into microglial BIN1 function and demonstrate an essential role of microglial BIN1 in regulating brain inflammatory response and microglial phenotypic changes. Moreover, for the first time, our study shows a regulatory relationship between Bin1 and Ifitm3 , two Alzheimer’s disease-related genes in microglia. The requirement for BIN1 to regulate Ifitm3 upregulation during inflammation has important implications for inflammatory responses during the pathogenesis and progression of many neurodegenerative diseases. Graphical Abstract« less
  2. ABSTRACT Background High intakes of fructose are associated with metabolic diseases, including hypertriglyceridemia and intestinal tumor growth. Although small intestinal epithelia consist of many different cell types, express lipogenic genes, and convert dietary fructose to fatty acids, there is no information on the identity of the cell type(s) mediating this conversion and on the effects of fructose on lipogenic gene expression. Objectives We hypothesized that fructose regulates the intestinal expression of genes involved in lipid and apolipoprotein synthesis, that regulation depends on the fructose transporter solute carrier family 2 member a5 [Slc2a5 (glucose transporter 5)] and on ketohexokinase (Khk), andmore »that regulation occurs only in enterocytes. Methods We compared lipogenic gene expression among different organs from wild-type adult male C57BL mice consuming a standard vivarium nonpurified diet. We then gavaged twice daily for 2.5 d fructose or glucose solutions (15%, 0.3 mL per mouse) into wild-type, Slc2a5-knockout (KO), and Khk-KO mice with free access to the nonpurified diet and determined expression of representative lipogenic genes. Finally, from mice fed the nonpurified diet, we made organoids highly enriched in enterocyte, goblet, Paneth, or stem cells and then incubated them overnight in 10 mM fructose or glucose. Results Most lipogenic genes were significantly expressed in the intestine relative to the kidney, liver, lung, and skeletal muscle. In vivo expression of Srebf1, Acaca, Fasn, Scd1, Dgat1, Gk, Apoa4, and Apob mRNA and of Scd1 protein increased (P < 0.05) by 3- to 20-fold in wild-type, but not in Slc2a5-KO and Khk-KO, mice gavaged with fructose. In vitro, Slc2a5- and Khk-dependent, fructose-induced increases, which ranged from 1.5- to 4-fold (P < 0.05), in mRNA concentrations of all these genes were observed only in organoids enriched in enterocytes. Conclusions Fructose specifically stimulates expression of mouse small intestinal genes for lipid and apolipoprotein synthesis. Secretory and stem cells seem incapable of transport- and metabolism-dependent lipogenesis, occurring only in absorptive enterocytes.« less
  3. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a C-type collectin and plays an important role in innate immunity and homeostasis in the lung. This study studied SP-D role in the nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi)-induced otitis media (OM) mouse model. Wild-type C57BL/6 (WT) and SP-D knockout (KO) mice were used in this study. Mice were injected in the middle ear (ME) with 5 μL of NTHi bacterial solution (3.5 × 105 CFU/ear) or with the same volume of sterile saline (control). Mice were sacrificed at 3 time points, days 1, 3, and 7, after treatment. We found SP-D expression in the Eustachian tubemore »(ET) and ME mucosa of WT mice but not in SP-D KO mice. After infection, SP-D KO mice showed more intense inflammatory changes evidenced by the increased mucosal thickness and inflammatory cell infiltration in the ME and ET compared to WT mice (p < 0.05). Increased bacterial colony-forming units and cytokine (IL-6 and IL-1β) levels in the ear washing fluid of infected SP-D KO mice were compared to infected WT mice. Molecular analysis revealed higher levels of NF-κB and NLRP3 activation in infected SP-D KO compared to WT mice (p < 0.05). In vitro studies demonstrated that SP-D significantly induced NTHi bacterial aggregation and enhanced bacterial phagocytosis by macrophages (p < 0.05). Furthermore, human ME epithelial cells showed a dose-dependent increased expression of NLRP3 and SP-D proteins after LPS treatment. We conclude that SP-D plays a critical role in innate immunity and disease resolution through enhancing host defense and regulating inflammatory NF-κB and NLRP3 activation in experimental OM mice.« less
  4. null (Ed.)
    Single cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) technology enables comprehensive transcriptomic profiling of thousands of cells with distinct phenotypic and physiological states in a complex tissue. Substantial efforts have been made to characterize single cells of distinct identities from scRNA-seq data, including various cell clustering techniques. While existing approaches can handle single cells in terms of different cell (sub)types at a high resolution, identification of the functional variability within the same cell type remains unsolved. In addition, there is a lack of robust method to handle the inter-subject variation that often brings severe confounding effects for the functional clustering of single cells. Inmore »this study, we developed a novel data denoising and cell clustering approach, namely CIBS, to provide biologically explainable functional classification for scRNA-seq data. CIBS is based on a systems biology model of transcriptional regulation that assumes a multi-modality distribution of the cells’ activation status, and it utilizes a Boolean matrix factorization approach on the discretized expression status to robustly derive functional modules. CIBS is empowered by a novel fast Boolean Matrix Factorization method, namely PFAST, to increase the computational feasibility on large scale scRNA-seq data. Application of CIBS on two scRNA-seq datasets collected from cancer tumor micro-environment successfully identified subgroups of cancer cells with distinct expression patterns of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and extracellular matrix marker genes, which was not revealed by the existing cell clustering analysis tools. The identified cell groups were significantly associated with the clinically confirmed lymph-node invasion and metastasis events across different patients. Index Terms—Cell clustering analysis, Data denoising, Boolean matrix factorization, Cancer microenvirionment, Metastasis.« less
  5. Abstract Approximately 7% of pregnant women in the United States use electronic-cigarette (e-cig) devices during pregnancy. There is, however, no scientific evidence to support e-cig use as being ‘safe’ during pregnancy. Little is known about the effects of fetal exposures to e-cig aerosols on lung alveologenesis. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that in utero exposure to e-cig aerosol impairs lung alveologenesis and pulmonary function in neonates. Pregnant BALB/c mice were exposed 2 h a day for 20 consecutive days during gestation to either filtered air or cinnamon-flavored e-cig aerosol (36 mg/mL of nicotine). Lung tissue was collected in offspringmore »during lung alveologenesis on postnatal day (PND) 5 and PND11. Lung function was measured at PND11. Exposure to e-cig aerosol in utero led to a significant decrease in body weights at birth which was sustained through PND5. At PND5, in utero e-cig exposures dysregulated genes related to Wnt signaling and epigenetic modifications in both females (~ 120 genes) and males (40 genes). These alterations were accompanied by reduced lung fibrillar collagen content at PND5—a time point when collagen content is close to its peak to support alveoli formation. In utero exposure to e-cig aerosol also increased the Newtonian resistance of offspring at PND11, suggesting a narrowing of the conducting airways. At PND11, in females, transcriptomic dysregulation associated with epigenetic alterations was sustained (17 genes), while WNT signaling dysregulation was largely resolved (10 genes). In males, at PND11, the expression of only 4 genes associated with epigenetics was dysregulated, while 16 Wnt related-genes were altered. These data demonstrate that in utero exposures to cinnamon-flavored e-cig aerosols alter lung structure and function and induce sex-specific molecular signatures during lung alveologenesis in neonatal mice. This may reflect epigenetic programming affecting lung disease development later in life.« less