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  1. Abstract

    After graphene was first exfoliated in 2004, research worldwide has focused on discovering and exploiting its distinctive electronic, mechanical, and structural properties. Application of the efficacious methodology used to fabricate graphene, mechanical exfoliation followed by optical microscopy inspection, to other analogous bulk materials has resulted in many more two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals. Despite their fascinating physical properties, manual identification of 2D atomic crystals has the clear drawback of low-throughput and hence is impractical for any scale-up applications of 2D samples. To combat this, recent integration of high-performance machine-learning techniques, usually deep learning algorithms because of their impressive object recognition abilities, with optical microscopy have been used to accelerate and automate this traditional flake identification process. However, deep learning methods require immense datasets and rely on uninterpretable and complicated algorithms for predictions. Conversely, tree-based machine-learning algorithms represent highly transparent and accessible models. We investigate these tree-based algorithms, with features that mimic color contrast, for automating the manual inspection process of exfoliated 2D materials (e.g., MoSe2). We examine their performance in comparison to ResNet, a famous Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), in terms of accuracy and the physical nature of their decision-making process. We find that the decision trees, gradient boosted decision trees, and random forests utilize physical aspects of the images to successfully identify 2D atomic crystals without suffering from extreme overfitting and high training dataset demands. We also employ a post-hoc study that identifies the sub-regions CNNs rely on for classification and find that they regularly utilize physically insignificant image attributes when correctly identifying thin materials.

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  2. Abstract

    A central but challenging problem in genetic studies is to test for (usually weak) associations between a complex trait (e.g., a disease status) and sets of multiple genetic variants. Due to the lack of a uniformly most powerful test, data‐adaptive tests, such as the adaptive sum of powered score (aSPU) test, are advantageous in maintaining high power against a wide range of alternatives. However, there is often no closed‐form to accurately and analytically calculate thep‐values of many adaptive tests like aSPU, thus Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are often used, which can be time consuming to achieve a stringent significance level (e.g., 5e‐8) used in genome‐wide association studies (GWAS). To estimate such a smallp‐value, we need a huge number of MC simulations (e.g., 1e+10). As an alternative, we propose using importance sampling to speed up such calculations. We develop some theory to motivate a proposed algorithm for the aSPU test, and show that the proposed method is computationally more efficient than the standard MC simulations. Using both simulated and real data, we demonstrate the superior performance of the new method over the standard MC simulations.

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