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  1. Abstract

    MAPK signaling modules play crucial roles in regulating numerous biological processes in all eukaryotic cells. How MAPK signaling specificity and strength are tightly controlled remains a major challenging question. InArabidopsisstomatal development, the MAPKK Kinase YODA (YDA) functions at the cell periphery to inhibit stomatal production by activating MAPK 3 and 6 (MPK3/6) that directly phosphorylate stomatal fate-determining transcription factors for degradation in the nucleus. Recently, we demonstrated that BSL1, one of the four BSL protein phosphatases, localizes to the cell cortex to activate YDA, elevating MPK3/6 activity to suppress stomatal formation. Here, we showed that at the plasma membrane, all four members of BSL proteins contribute to the YDA activation. However, in the nucleus, specific BSL members (BSL2, BSL3, and BSU1) directly deactivate MPK6 to counteract the linear MAPK pathway, thereby promoting stomatal formation. Thus, the pivotal MAPK signaling in stomatal fate determination is spatially modulated by a signaling dichotomy of the BSL protein phosphatases inArabidopsis, providing a prominent example of how MAPK activities are integrated and specified by signaling compartmentalization at the subcellular level.

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  2. Abstract

    Cell polarity is a fundamental feature underlying cell morphogenesis and organismal development. In theArabidopsisstomatal lineage, the polarity protein BASL controls stomatal asymmetric cell division. However, the cellular machinery by which this intrinsic polarity site is established remains unknown. Here, we identify the PRAF/RLD proteins as BASL physical partners and mutating fourPRAFmembers leads to defects in BASL polarization. Members of PRAF proteins are polarized in stomatal lineage cells in a BASL-dependent manner. Developmental defects of theprafmutants phenocopy those of thegnommutants. GNOM is an activator of the conserved Arf GTPases and plays important roles in membrane trafficking. We further find PRAF physically interacts with GNOM in vitro and in vivo. Thus, we propose that the positive feedback of BASL and PRAF at the plasma membrane and the connected function of PRAF and GNOM in endosomal trafficking establish intrinsic cell polarity in theArabidopsisstomatal lineage.

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  3. Summary

    In the leaf epidermis, stomatal pores allow gas exchange between plants and the environment. The production of stomatal guard cells requires the lineage cells to divide asymmetrically. In this Insight review, we describe an emerging picture of how intrinsic molecules drive stomatal asymmetric cell division in multidimensions, from transcriptional activities in the nucleus to the dynamic assembly of the polarity complex at the cell cortex. Given the significant roles of stomatal activity in plant responses to environmental changes, we incorporate recent advances in external cues feeding into the regulation of core molecular machinery required for stomatal development. The work we discuss here is mainly based on the dicot plantArabidopsis thalianawith summaries of recent progress in the monocots.

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  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  6. Abstract This paper presents a software-hardware integrated approach to high-speed large-range dynamic mode imaging of atomic force microscope (AFM). High speed AFM imaging is needed to interrogate dynamic processes at nanoscale such as cellular interactions and polymer crystallization process. High-speed dynamic-modes such as tapping-mode AFM imaging is challenging as the probe tapping motion is sensitive to the highly nonlinear probe-sample interaction during the imaging process. The existing hardware-based approach via bandwidth enlargement, however, results in a substantially reduction of imaging area that can be covered. Contrarily, control (algorithm)-based approach, for example, the recently developed adaptive multiloop mode (AMLM) technique, has demonstrated its efficacy in increasing the tapping-mode imaging speed without loss of imaging size. Further improvement, however, has been limited by the hardware bandwidth and online signal processing speed and computation complexity.Thus, in this paper, the AMLM technique is further enhanced to optimize the probe tapping regulation and integrated with a field programmable gate array (FPGA) platform to further increase the imaging speed without loss of imaging quality and range. Experimental implementation of the proposed approach demonstrates that the high-quality imaging can be achieved at a high-speed scanning rate of 100 Hz and higher, and over a large imaging area of over 20 µm.  
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 19, 2024