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Bacterial Homologs of Progestin and AdipoQ Receptors (PAQRs) Affect Membrane Energetics Homeostasis but Not FluidityGalperin, Michael Y. (Ed.)ABSTRACT Membrane potential homeostasis is essential for cell survival. Defects in membrane potential lead to pleiotropic phenotypes, consistent with the central role of membrane energetics in cell physiology. Homologs of the progestin and AdipoQ receptors (PAQRs) are conserved in multiple phyla of Bacteria and Eukarya . In eukaryotes, PAQRs are proposed to modulate membrane fluidity and fatty acid (FA) metabolism. The role of bacterial homologs has not been elucidated. Here, we use Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis to show that bacterial PAQR homologs, which we name “TrhA,” have a role in membrane energetics homeostasis. Using transcriptional fusions, we show thatmore »Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 19, 2023
Bacterial chemotaxis is the directed movement of motile bacteria in gradients of chemoeffectors. This behavior is mediated by dedicated signal transduction pathways that couple environment sensing with changes in the direction of rotation of flagellar motors to ultimately affect the motility pattern. Azospirillum brasilense uses two distinct chemotaxis pathways, named Che1 and Che4, and four different response regulators (CheY1, CheY4, CheY6, and CheY7) to control the swimming pattern during chemotaxis. Each of the CheY homologs was shown to differentially affect the rotational bias of the polar flagellum and chemotaxis. The role, if any, of these CheY homologs in swarming, whichmore »
Cytokinins (CKs) and ethylene (ET) are among the most ancient organic chemicals on Earth. A wide range of organisms including plants, algae, fungi, amoebae, and bacteria use these substances as signaling molecules to regulate cellular processes. Because of their ancestral origin and ubiquitous occurrence, CKs and ET are also considered to be ideal molecules for inter-kingdom communication. Their signal transduction pathways were first historically deciphered in plants and are related to the two-component systems, using histidine kinases as primary sensors. Paradoxically, although CKs and ET serve as signaling molecules in different kingdoms, it has been supposed for a long timemore »