skip to main content

Search for: All records

Award ID contains: 1855066

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Galperin, Michael Y. (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Membrane potential homeostasis is essential for cell survival. Defects in membrane potential lead to pleiotropic phenotypes, consistent with the central role of membrane energetics in cell physiology. Homologs of the progestin and AdipoQ receptors (PAQRs) are conserved in multiple phyla of Bacteria and Eukarya . In eukaryotes, PAQRs are proposed to modulate membrane fluidity and fatty acid (FA) metabolism. The role of bacterial homologs has not been elucidated. Here, we use Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis to show that bacterial PAQR homologs, which we name “TrhA,” have a role in membrane energetics homeostasis. Using transcriptional fusions, we show thatmore »E. coli TrhA (encoded by yqfA ) is part of the unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis regulon. Fatty acid analyses and physiological assays show that a lack of TrhA in both E. coli and B. subtilis (encoded by yplQ ) provokes subtle but consistent changes in membrane fatty acid profiles that do not translate to control of membrane fluidity. Instead, membrane proteomics in E. coli suggested a disrupted energy metabolism and dysregulated membrane energetics in the mutant, though it grew similarly to its parent. These changes translated into a disturbed membrane potential in the mutant relative to its parent under various growth conditions. Similar dysregulation of membrane energetics was observed in a different E. coli strain and in the distantly related B. subtilis . Together, our findings are consistent with a role for TrhA in membrane energetics homeostasis, through a mechanism that remains to be elucidated. IMPORTANCE Eukaryotic homologs of the progestin and AdipoQ receptor family (PAQR) have been shown to regulate membrane fluidity by affecting, through unknown mechanisms, unsaturated fatty acid (FA) metabolism. The bacterial homologs studied here mediate small and consistent changes in unsaturated FA metabolism that do not seem to impact membrane fluidity but, rather, alter membrane energetics homeostasis. Together, the findings here suggest that bacterial and eukaryotic PAQRs share functions in maintaining membrane homeostasis (fluidity in eukaryotes and energetics for bacteria with TrhA homologs).« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 19, 2023
  2. Bacterial chemotaxis is the directed movement of motile bacteria in gradients of chemoeffectors. This behavior is mediated by dedicated signal transduction pathways that couple environment sensing with changes in the direction of rotation of flagellar motors to ultimately affect the motility pattern. Azospirillum brasilense uses two distinct chemotaxis pathways, named Che1 and Che4, and four different response regulators (CheY1, CheY4, CheY6, and CheY7) to control the swimming pattern during chemotaxis. Each of the CheY homologs was shown to differentially affect the rotational bias of the polar flagellum and chemotaxis. The role, if any, of these CheY homologs in swarming, whichmore »depends on a distinct lateral flagella system or in attachment is not known. Here, we characterize CheY homologs’ roles in swimming, swarming, and attachment to abiotic and biotic (wheat roots) surfaces and biofilm formation. We show that while strains lacking CheY1 and CheY6 are still able to navigate air gradients, strains lacking CheY4 and CheY7 are chemotaxis null. Expansion of swarming colonies in the presence of gradients requires chemotaxis. The induction of swarming depends on CheY4 and CheY7, but the cells’ organization as dense clusters in productive swarms appear to depend on functional CheYs but not chemotaxis per se . Similarly, functional CheY homologs but not chemotaxis, contribute to attachment to both abiotic and root surfaces as well as to biofilm formation, although these effects are likely dependent on additional cell surface properties such as adhesiveness. Collectively, our data highlight distinct roles for multiple CheY homologs and for chemotaxis on swarming and attachment to surfaces.« less
  3. Cytokinins (CKs) and ethylene (ET) are among the most ancient organic chemicals on Earth. A wide range of organisms including plants, algae, fungi, amoebae, and bacteria use these substances as signaling molecules to regulate cellular processes. Because of their ancestral origin and ubiquitous occurrence, CKs and ET are also considered to be ideal molecules for inter-kingdom communication. Their signal transduction pathways were first historically deciphered in plants and are related to the two-component systems, using histidine kinases as primary sensors. Paradoxically, although CKs and ET serve as signaling molecules in different kingdoms, it has been supposed for a long timemore »that the canonical CK and ET signaling pathways are restricted to terrestrial plants. These considerations have now been called into question following the identification over recent years of genes encoding CK and ET receptor homologs in many other lineages within the tree of life. These advances shed new light on the dissemination and evolution of these hormones as both intra- and inter-specific communication molecules in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms.« less