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  1. We present a multiline survey of the interstellar medium (ISM) in two z  > 6 quasar host galaxies, PJ231−20 ( z  = 6.59) and PJ308−21 ( z  = 6.23), and their two companion galaxies. Observations were carried out using the Atacama Large (sub-)Millimeter Array (ALMA). We targeted 11 transitions including atomic fine-structure lines (FSLs) and molecular lines: [NII] 205 μm , [CI] 369 μm , CO ( J up  = 7, 10, 15, 16), H 2 O 3 12  − 2 21 , 3 21  − 3 12 , 3 03  − 2 12 , and the OH 163 μm doublet. The underlying far-infrared (FIR) continuum samples the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of the respectivemore »dust emission. By combining this information with our earlier ALMA [CII] 158 μm observations, we explored the effects of star formation and black hole feedback on the ISM of the galaxies using the CLOUDY radiative transfer models. We estimated dust masses, spectral indexes, IR luminosities, and star-formation rates from the FIR continuum. The analysis of the FSLs indicates that the [CII] 158 μm and [CI] 369 μm emission arises predominantly from the neutral medium in photodissociation regions (PDRs). We find that line deficits agree with those of local luminous IR galaxies. The CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) reveal significant high- J CO excitation in both quasar hosts. Our CO SLED modeling of the quasar PJ231−20 shows that PDRs dominate the molecular mass and CO luminosities for J up  ≤ 7, while the J up  ≥ 10 CO emission is likely driven by X-ray dissociation regions produced by the active galactic nucleus (AGN) at the very center of the quasar host. The J up  > 10 lines are undetected in the other galaxies in our study. The H 2 O 3 21  − 3 12 line detection in the same quasar places this object on the L H 2 O  −  L TIR relation found for low- z sources, thus suggesting that this water vapor transition is predominantly excited by IR pumping. Models of the H 2 O SLED and of the H 2 O-to-OH 163 μm ratio point to PDR contributions with high volume and column density ( n H  ∼ 0.8 × 10 5 cm −3 , N H  = 10 24 cm −2 ) in an intense radiation field. Our analysis suggests a less highly excited medium in the companion galaxies. However, the current data do not allow us to definitively rule out an AGN in these sources, as suggested by previous studies of the same objects. This work demonstrates the power of multiline studies of FIR diagnostics in order to dissect the physical conditions in the first massive galaxies emerging from cosmic dawn.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2022
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 27, 2022
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2022
  4. ABSTRACT Outflows from supermassive black holes (SMBHs) play an important role in the co-evolution of themselves, their host galaxies, and the larger scale environments. Such outflows are often characterized by emission and absorption lines in various bands and in a wide velocity range blueshifted from the systematic redshift of the host quasar. In this paper, we report a strong broad line region (BLR) outflow from the z ≈ 4.7 quasar BR 1202-0725 based on the high-resolution optical spectrum taken with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) spectrograph installed on the 6.5 m Magellan/Clay telescope, obtained from the ‘Probing the He ii re-Ionization ERa viamore »Absorbing C iv Historical Yield’ (HIERACHY) project. This rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectrum is characterized by a few significantly blueshifted broad emission lines from high ions; the most significant one is the C iv line at a velocity of $\sim -6500$ km s−1 relative to the H α emission line, which is among the highest velocity BLR outflows in observed quasars at z > 4. The measured properties of UV emission lines from different ions, except for O i and Ly α, also follow a clear trend that higher ions tend to be broader and outflow at higher average velocities. There are multiple C iv and Si iv absorbing components identified on the blue wings of the corresponding emission lines, which may be produced by either the outflow or the intervening absorbers.« less
  5. ABSTRACT X-ray observations provide a unique probe of the accretion disc corona of supermassive black holes (SMBHs). In this paper, we present a uniform Chandra X-ray data analysis of a sample of 152 z ≥ 4.5 quasars. We firmly detect 46 quasars of this sample in 0.5–2 keV above 3σ and calculate the upper limits of the X-ray flux of the remaining. We also estimate the power-law photon index of the X-ray spectrum of 31 quasars. 24 of our sample quasars are detected in the FIRST or NVSS radio surveys; all of them are radio-loud. We statistically compare the X-ray propertiesmore »of our z ≥ 4.5 quasars to other X-ray samples of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at different redshifts. The relation between the rest-frame X-ray luminosity and other quasar parameters, such as the bolometric luminosity, UV luminosity, or SMBH mass, shows large scatters. These large scatters can be attributed to the narrow luminosity range at the highest redshift, the large measurement error based on relatively poor X-ray data, and the inclusion of radio-loud quasars in the sample. The LX–LUV relationship is significantly sublinear. We do not find a significant redshift evolution of the LX–LUV relation, expressed either in the slope of this relation, or the departure of individual AGNs from the best-fitting αOX–LUV relation (ΔαOX). The median value of the X-ray photon index is Γ ≈ 1.79, which does not show redshift evolution from z = 0 to z ∼ 7. The X-ray and UV properties of the most distant quasars could potentially be used as a standard candle to constrain cosmological models. The large scatter of our sample on the Hubble diagram highlights the importance of future large unbiased deep X-ray and radio surveys in using quasars in cosmological studies.« less