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  1. Abstract

    Triangulum (M33) is a low-mass, relatively undisturbed spiral galaxy that offers a new regime in which to test models of dynamical heating. In spite of its proximity, M33's dynamical heating history has not yet been well-constrained. In this work, we present the TREX Survey, the largest stellar spectroscopic survey across the disk of M33. We present the stellar disk kinematics as a function of age to study the past and ongoing dynamical heating of M33. We measure line-of-sight velocities for ∼4500 disk stars. Using a subset, we divide the stars into broad age bins using Hubble Space Telescope and Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope photometric catalogs: massive main-sequence stars and helium-burning stars (∼80 Myr), intermediate-mass asymptotic branch stars (∼1 Gyr), and low-mass red giant branch stars (∼4 Gyr). We compare the stellar disk dynamics to that of the gas using existing Hi, CO, and Hαkinematics. We find that the disk of M33 has relatively low-velocity dispersion (∼16 km s−1), and unlike in the Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies, there is no strong trend in velocity dispersion as a function of stellar age. The youngest disk stars are as dynamically hot as the oldest disk stars and are dynamically hotter than predicted bymore »most M33-like low-mass simulated analogs in Illustris. The velocity dispersion of the young stars is highly structured, with the large velocity dispersion fairly localized. The cause of this high-velocity dispersion is not evident from the observations and simulated analogs presented here.

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  2. Abstract

    We present initial results from a large spectroscopic survey of stars throughout M33's stellar disk. We analyze a sample of 1667 red giant branch (RGB) stars extending to projected distances of ∼11 kpc from M33's center (∼18 kpc, or ∼10 scale lengths, in the plane of the disk). The line-of-sight velocities of RGB stars show the presence of two kinematical components. One component is consistent with rotation in the plane of M33's Hidisk and has a velocity dispersion (∼19 km s−1), consistent with that observed in a comparison sample of younger stars, while the second component has a significantly higher velocity dispersion. A two-component fit to the RGB velocity distribution finds that the high-dispersion component has a velocity dispersion of59.32.5+2.6km s−1and rotates very slowly in the plane of the disk (consistent with no rotation at the <1.5σlevel), which favors interpreting it as a stellar halo rather than a thick disk population. A spatial analysis indicates that the fraction of RGB stars in the high-velocity-dispersion component decreases with increasing radius over the range covered by the spectroscopic sample. Our spectroscopic sample establishes that a significant high-velocity-dispersion component is present in M33's RGB population from near M33's centermore »to at least the radius where M33's Hidisk begins to warp at 30′ (∼7.5 kpc) in the plane of the disk. This is the first detection and spatial characterization of a kinematically hot stellar component throughout M33's inner regions.

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  3. null (Ed.)