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  1. Abstract We present a high-resolution study of the cold molecular gas as traced by CO(1-0) in the unlensed z ∼ 3.4 submillimeter galaxy SMM J13120+4242, using multiconfiguration observations with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA). The gas reservoir, imaged on 0.″39 (∼3 kpc) scales, is resolved into two components separated by ∼11 kpc with a total extent of 16 ± 3 kpc. Despite the large spatial extent of the reservoir, the observations show a CO(1-0) FWHM linewidth of only 267 ± 64 km s −1 . We derive a revised line luminosity of L CO ( 1 −more »0 ) ′ = (10 ± 3) × 10 10 K km s −1 pc 2 and a molecular gas mass of M gas = (13 ± 3)× 10 10 ( α CO /1) M ⊙ . Despite the presence of a velocity gradient (consistent with previous resolved CO(6-5) imaging), the CO(1-0) imaging shows evidence for significant turbulent motions that are preventing the gas from fully settling into a disk. The system likely represents a merger in an advanced stage. Although the dynamical mass is highly uncertain, we use it to place an upper limit on the CO-to-H 2 mass conversion factor α CO of 1.4. We revisit the SED fitting, finding that this galaxy lies on the very massive end of the main sequence at z = 3.4. Based on the low gas fraction, short gas depletion time, and evidence for a central AGN, we propose that SMM J13120 is in a rapid transitional phase between a merger-driven starburst and an unobscured quasar. The case of SMM J13120 highlights how mergers may drive important physical changes in galaxies without pushing them off the main sequence.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  2. We present Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array S - (2–4 GHz), C - (4–8 GHz), and X -band (8–12 GHz) continuum observations toward seven radio-loud quasars at z  > 5. This sample has previously been found to exhibit spectral peaks at observed-frame frequencies above ∼1 GHz. We also present upgraded Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (uGMRT) band-2 (200 MHz), band-3 (400 MHz), and band-4 (650 MHz) radio continuum observations toward eight radio-loud quasars at z  > 5, selected from our previous GMRT survey, in order to sample their low-frequency synchrotron emission. Combined with archival radio continuum observations, all ten targets show evidencemore »for spectral turnover. The turnover frequencies are ∼1–50 GHz in the rest frame, making these targets gigahertz-peaked-spectrum or high-frequency-peaker candidates. For the nine well-constrained targets with observations on both sides of the spectral turnover, we fit the entire radio spectrum with absorption models associated with synchrotron self-absorption and free-free absorption (FFA). Our results show that FFA in an external inhomogeneous medium can accurately describe the observed spectra for all nine targets, which may indicate an FFA origin for the radio spectral turnover in our sample. As for the complex spectrum of J114657.79+403708.6 at z  = 5.00 with two spectral peaks, it may be caused by multiple components (i.e., core-jet) and FFA by the high-density medium in the nuclear region. However, we cannot rule out the spectral turnover origin of variability. Based on our radio spectral modeling, we calculate the radio loudness R 2500 Å for our sample, which ranges from 12 −1 +1 to 674 −51 +61 .« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  3. Abstract We report new Northern Extended Millimeter Array observations of the [C ii ] 158 μ m , [N ii ] 205 μ m , and [O i ] 146 μ m atomic fine structure lines (FSLs) and dust continuum emission of J1148+5251, a z = 6.42 quasar, which probe the physical properties of its interstellar medium (ISM). The radially averaged [C ii ] 158 μ m and dust continuum emission have similar extensions (up to θ = 2.51 − 0.25 + 0.46 arcsec , corresponding to r = 9.8 − 2.1 + 3.3 kpc , accounting for beam convolution),more »confirming that J1148+5251 is the quasar with the largest [C ii ] 158 μ m -emitting reservoir known at these epochs. Moreover, if the [C ii ] 158 μ m emission is examined only along its NE–SW axis, a significant excess (>5.8 σ ) of [C ii ] 158 μ m emission (with respect to the dust) is detected. The new wide-bandwidth observations enable us to accurately constrain the continuum emission, and do not statistically require the presence of broad [C ii ] 158 μ m line wings that were reported in previous studies. We also report the first detection of the [O i ] 146 μ m and (tentatively) [N ii ] 205 μ m emission lines in J1148+5251. Using FSL ratios of the [C ii ] 158 μ m , [N ii ] 205 μ m , [O i ] 146 μ m , and previously measured [C i ] 369 μ m emission lines, we show that J1148+5251 has similar ISM conditions compared to lower-redshift (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies. CLOUDY modeling of the FSL ratios excludes X-ray-dominated regions and favors photodissociation regions as the origin of the FSL emission. We find that a high radiation field (10 3.5–4.5 G 0 ), a high gas density ( n ≃ 10 3.5–4.5 cm −3 ), and an H i column density of 10 23 cm −2 reproduce the observed FSL ratios well.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  4. Abstract Distortions of the observed cosmic microwave background provide a direct measurement of the microwave background temperature at redshifts from 0 to 1 (refs.  1,2 ). Some additional background temperature estimates exist at redshifts from 1.8 to 3.3 based on molecular and atomic line-excitation temperatures in quasar absorption-line systems, but are model dependent 3 . No deviations from the expected (1 +  z ) scaling behaviour of the microwave background temperature have been seen 4 , but the measurements have not extended deeply into the matter-dominated era of the Universe at redshifts z  > 3.3. Here we report observations of submillimetre linemore »absorption from the water molecule against the cosmic microwave background at z  = 6.34 in a massive starburst galaxy, corresponding to a lookback time of 12.8 billion years (ref.  5 ). Radiative pumping of the upper level of the ground-state ortho-H 2 O(1 10 –1 01 ) line due to starburst activity in the dusty galaxy HFLS3 results in a cooling to below the redshifted microwave background temperature, after the transition is initially excited by the microwave background. This implies a microwave background temperature of 16.4–30.2 K (1 σ range) at z  = 6.34, which is consistent with a background temperature increase with redshift as expected from the standard ΛCDM cosmology 4 .« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 3, 2023
  5. Abstract We report CO(5 → 4) and CO(6 → 5) line observations in the dusty starbursting galaxy CRLE ( z = 5.667) and the main-sequence (MS) galaxy HZ10 ( z = 5.654) with the Northern Extended Millimeter Array. CRLE is the most luminous z > 5 starburst in the COSMOS field and HZ10 is the most gas-rich “normal” galaxy currently known at z > 5. We find line luminosities for CO(5 → 4) and CO(6 → 5) of (4.9 ± 0.5) and (3.8 ± 0.4) × 10 10 K km s −1 pc 2 for CRLE and upper limits ofmore »< 0.76 and < 0.60 × 10 10 K km s −1 pc 2 for HZ10, respectively. The CO excitation of CRLE appears comparable to other z > 5 dusty star-forming galaxies. For HZ10, these line luminosity limits provide the first significant constraints of this kind for an MS galaxy at z > 5. We find the upper limit of L 5 → 4 ′ / L 2 → 1 ′ in HZ10 could be similar to the average value for MS galaxies around z ≈ 1.5, suggesting that MS galaxies with comparable gas excitation may already have existed one billion years after the Big Bang. For CRLE we determine the most likely values for the H 2 density, kinetic temperature, and dust temperature based on excitation modeling of the CO line ladder. We also derive a total gas mass of (7.1 ± 1.3) × 10 10 M ⊙ . Our findings provide some of the currently most detailed constraints on the gas excitation that sets the conditions for star formation in a galaxy protocluster environment at z > 5.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  6. Abstract Radio free–free emission is considered to be one of the most reliable tracers of star formation in galaxies. However, as it constitutes the faintest part of the radio spectrum—being roughly an order of magnitude less luminous than radio synchrotron emission at the GHz frequencies typically targeted in radio surveys—the usage of free–free emission as a star formation rate tracer has mostly remained limited to the local universe. Here, we perform a multifrequency radio stacking analysis using deep Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array observations at 1.4, 3, 5, 10, and 34 GHz in the COSMOS and GOODS-North fields tomore »probe free–free emission in typical galaxies at the peak of cosmic star formation. We find that z ∼ 0.5–3 star-forming galaxies exhibit radio emission at rest-frame frequencies of ∼65–90 GHz that is ∼1.5–2 times fainter than would be expected from a simple combination of free–free and synchrotron emission, as in the prototypical starburst galaxy M82. We interpret this as a deficit in high-frequency synchrotron emission, while the level of free–free emission is as expected from M82. We additionally provide the first constraints on the cosmic star formation history using free–free emission at 0.5 ≲ z ≲ 3, which are in good agreement with more established tracers at high redshift. In the future, deep multifrequency radio surveys will be crucial in order to accurately determine the shape of the radio spectrum of faint star-forming galaxies, and to further establish radio free–free emission as a tracer of high-redshift star formation.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  7. Abstract The Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) has become a cornerstone of extragalactic astronomy. Since the last public catalog in 2015, a wealth of new imaging and spectroscopic data have been collected in the COSMOS field. This paper describes the collection, processing, and analysis of these new imaging data to produce a new reference photometric redshift catalog. Source detection and multiwavelength photometry are performed for 1.7 million sources across the 2 deg 2 of the COSMOS field, ∼966,000 of which are measured with all available broadband data using both traditional aperture photometric methods and a new profile-fitting photometric extraction tool, Themore »Farmer , which we have developed. A detailed comparison of the two resulting photometric catalogs is presented. Photometric redshifts are computed for all sources in each catalog utilizing two independent photometric redshift codes. Finally, a comparison is made between the performance of the photometric methodologies and of the redshift codes to demonstrate an exceptional degree of self-consistency in the resulting photometric redshifts. The i < 21 sources have subpercent photometric redshift accuracy and even the faintest sources at 25 < i < 27 reach a precision of 5%. Finally, these results are discussed in the context of previous, current, and future surveys in the COSMOS field. Compared to COSMOS2015, it reaches the same photometric redshift precision at almost one magnitude deeper. Both photometric catalogs and their photometric redshift solutions and physical parameters will be made available through the usual astronomical archive systems (ESO Phase 3, IPAC-IRSA, and CDS).« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 23, 2022
  9. Aims. The dust content of normal galaxies and the dust mass density (DMD) at high- z ( z  > 4) are unconstrained given the source confusion and the sensitivity limitations of previous observations. The ALMA Large Program to INvestigate [CII] at Early times (ALPINE), which targeted 118 ultra-violet (UV)-selected star-forming galaxies at 4.4 <  z  < 5.9, provides a new opportunity to tackle this issue for the first time with a statistically robust dataset. Methods. We exploited the rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) fluxes of 23 galaxies individually detected in their continuum emission, as well as stacked continuum images, to measure the dust content ofmore »the 118 UV-selected ALPINE galaxies. We focused on the dust scaling relations and, by comparison with predictions from chemical evolution models, we probed the evolutionary stage of UV-selected galaxies at high- z . By using the observed correlation between the UV luminosity and the dust mass, we estimated the DMD of UV-selected galaxies at z  ∼ 5, weighting the galaxies by means of the UV luminosity function. The derived DMD is compared with the value we estimated from ten ALPINE galaxies blindly detected in the FIR continuum, at the redshift of the ALPINE targets. Results. Our ALMA survey allows the exploration for the first time of the dust content in normal star-forming galaxies at z  > 4 in a statistically robust sample of sources. The comparison of the observed dust scaling relations with chemical evolution models suggests that ALPINE galaxies are not likely progenitors of disc galaxies, but of intermediate- and low-mass proto-spheroids, resulting in present-day bulges of spiral or elliptical galaxies. Interestingly, this conclusion is in line with the independent morphological analysis that shows that the majority (∼70%) of the dust-continuum detected galaxies have a disturbed morphology. The DMD obtained at z  ∼ 5 from UV-selected sources is ∼30% of the value obtained from blind FIR-selected sources, showing that the UV selection misses the most dust-rich, UV-obscured galaxies.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2022
  10. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2022