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  1. Abstract

    We present Very Large Array observations toward the Class 0 protostar L1157 MMS at 6.8 and 9 mm with a resolution of ∼0.″04 (14 au). We detect two sources within L1157 MMS and interpret these sources as a binary protostar with a separation of ∼16 au. The material directly surrounding the binary system within the inner 50 au radius of the system has an estimated mass of 0.11M, calculated from the observed dust emission. We interpret the observed binary system in the context of previous observations of its flattened envelope structure, low rates of envelope rotation from 5000 to 200 au scales, and an ordered, poloidal magnetic field aligned with the outflow. Thus, L1157 MMS is a prototype system for magnetically regulated collapse, and the presence of a compact binary within L1157 MMS demonstrates that multiple star formation can still occur within envelopes that likely have dynamically important magnetic fields.

  2. ABSTRACT

    Telescopes are now able to resolve dust polarization across circumstellar discs at multiple wavelengths, allowing the study of the polarization spectrum. Most discs show clear evidence of dust scattering through their unidirectional polarization pattern typically at the shorter wavelength of $\sim 870 \, \mu$m. However, certain discs show an elliptical pattern at ∼3 mm, which is likely due to aligned grains. With HL Tau, its polarization pattern at ∼1.3 mm shows a transition between the two patterns making it the first example to reveal such transition. We use the T-matrix method to model elongated dust grains and properly treat scattering of aligned non-spherical grains with a plane-parallel slab model. We demonstrate that a change in optical depth can naturally explain the polarization transition of HL Tau. At low optical depths, the thermal polarization dominates, while at high optical depths, dichroic extinction effectively takes out the thermal polarization and scattering polarization dominates. Motivated by results from the plane-parallel slab, we develop a simple technique to disentangle thermal polarization of the aligned grains T0 and polarization due to scattering S using the azimuthal variation of the polarization fraction. We find that, with increasing wavelength, the fractional polarization spectrum of the scattering component Smore »decreases, while the thermal component T0 increases, which is expected since the optical depth decreases. We find several other sources similar to HL Tau that can be explained by azimuthally aligned scattering prolate grains when including optical depth effects. In addition, we explore how spirally aligned grains with scattering can appear in polarization images.

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  3. Abstract

    We characterize protostellar multiplicity in

    Current address: Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5–7, DK-1350, Copenhagen K, Denmark.

    the Orion molecular clouds using Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array 0.87 mm and Very Large Array 9 mm continuum surveys toward 328 protostars. These observations are sensitive to projected spatial separations as small as ∼20 au, and we consider source separations up to 104au as potential companions. The overall multiplicity fraction (MF) and companion fraction (CF) for the Orion protostars are 0.30 ± 0.03 and 0.44 ± 0.03, respectively, considering separations from 20 to 104au. The MFs and CFs are corrected for potential contamination by unassociated young stars using a probabilistic scheme based on the surface density of young stars around each protostar. The companion separation distribution as a whole is double peaked and inconsistent with the separation distribution of solar-type field stars, while the separation distribution of Flat Spectrum protostars is consistent solar-type field stars. The multiplicity statistics and companion separation distributions of the Perseus star-forming region are consistent with those of Orion. Based on the observed peaks in the Class 0 separations at ∼100 au and ∼103au, we argue that multiples with separations <500 au are likely produced bymore »both disk fragmentation and turbulent fragmentation with migration, and those at ≳103au result primarily from turbulent fragmentation. We also find that MFs/CFs may rise from Class 0 to Flat Spectrum protostars between 100 and 103au in regions of high young stellar object density. This finding may be evidence for the migration of companions from >103au to <103au, and that some companions between 103and 104au must be (or become) unbound.

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  4. Abstract We present high-resolution Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) observations of the protostar L1527 IRS at 7 mm, 1.3 cm, and 2 cm wavelengths. We detect the edge-on dust disk at all three wavelengths and find that it is asymmetric, with the southern side of the disk brighter than the northern side. We confirm this asymmetry through analytic modeling and also find that the disk is flared at 7 mm. We test the data against models including gap features in the intensity profile, and though we cannot rule such models out, they do not provide a statistically significant improvement in the quality of fit to the data. From these fits, we can, however, place constraints on allowed properties of any gaps that could be present in the true, underlying intensity profile. The physical nature of the asymmetry is difficult to associate with physical features owing to the edge-on nature of the disk, but it could be related to spiral arms or asymmetries seen in other imaging of more face-on disks.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 28, 2023
  5. Abstract We present H -band (1.65 μ m) and SOFIA HAWC+ 154 μ m polarization observations of the low-mass core L483. Our H -band observations reveal a magnetic field that is overwhelmingly in the E–W direction, which is approximately parallel to the bipolar outflow that is observed in scattered IR light and in single-dish 12 CO observations. From our 154 μ m data, we infer a ∼45° twist in the magnetic field within the inner 5″ (1000 au) of L483. We compare these new observations with published single-dish 350 μ m polarimetry and find that the 10,000 au scale H -band data match the smaller-scale 350 μ m data, indicating that the collapse of L483 is magnetically regulated on these larger scales. We also present high-resolution 1.3 mm Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array data of L483 that reveals it is a close binary star with a separation of 34 au. The plane of the binary of L483 is observed to be approximately parallel to the twisted field in the inner 1000 au. Comparing this result to the ∼1000 au protostellar envelope, we find that the envelope is roughly perpendicular to the 1000 au HAWC+ field. Using the data presented, we speculatemore »that L483 initially formed as a wide binary and the companion star migrated to its current position, causing an extreme shift in angular momentum thereby producing the twisted magnetic field morphology observed. More observations are needed to further test this scenario.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  6. Abstract We present Markov Chain Monte Carlo radiative transfer modeling of a joint ALMA 345 GHz and spectral energy distribution data set for a sample of 97 protostellar disks from the VLA and ALMA Nascent Disk and Multiplicity Survey of Orion Protostars. From this modeling, we derive disk and envelope properties for each protostar, allowing us to examine the bulk properties of a population of young protostars. We find that disks are small, with a median dust radius of 29.4 − 2.7 + 4.1 au and a median dust mass of 5.8 − 2.7 + 4.6 M ⊕ . We find no statistically significant difference between most properties of Class 0, Class I, and flat-spectrum sources with the exception of envelope dust mass and inclination. The distinction between inclination is an indication that the Class 0/I/flat-spectrum system may be difficult to tie uniquely to the evolutionary state of protostars. When comparing with Class II disk dust masses in Taurus from similar radiative transfer modeling, we further find that the trend of disk dust mass decreasing from Class 0 to Class II disks is no longer present, though it remains unclear whether such a comparison is fair owing to differences inmore »star-forming region and modeling techniques. Moreover, the disks we model are broadly gravitationally stable. Finally, we compare disk masses and radii with simulations of disk formation and find that magnetohydrodynamical effects may be important for reproducing the observed properties of disks.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  7. Abstract Star formation primarily occurs in filaments where magnetic fields are expected to be dynamically important. The largest and densest filaments trace the spiral structure within galaxies. Over a dozen of these dense (∼10 4 cm −3 ) and long (>10 pc) filaments have been found within the Milky Way, and they are often referred to as “bones.” Until now, none of these bones has had its magnetic field resolved and mapped in its entirety. We introduce the SOFIA legacy project FIELDMAPS which has begun mapping ∼10 of these Milky Way bones using the HAWC+ instrument at 214 μ m and 18.″2 resolution. Here we present a first result from this survey on the ∼60 pc long bone G47. Contrary to some studies of dense filaments in the Galactic plane, we find that the magnetic field is often not perpendicular to the spine (i.e., the center line of the bone). Fields tend to be perpendicular in the densest areas of active star formation and more parallel or random in other areas. The average field is neither parallel nor perpendicular to the Galactic plane or the bone. The magnetic field strengths along the spine typically vary from ∼20 to ∼100 μmore »G. Magnetic fields tend to be strong enough to suppress collapse along much of the bone, but for areas that are most active in star formation, the fields are notably less able to resist gravitational collapse.« less
  8. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Polarized dust continuum emission has been observed with Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array in an increasing number of deeply embedded protostellar systems. It generally shows a sharp transition going from the protostellar envelope to the disc scale, with the polarization fraction typically dropping from ${\sim } 5{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ to ${\sim } 1{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ and the inferred magnetic field orientations becoming more aligned with the major axis of the system. We quantitatively investigate these observational trends using a sample of protostars in the Perseus molecular cloud and compare these features with a non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic disc formation simulation. We find that the gas density increases faster than the magnetic field strength in the transition from the envelope to the disc scale, which makes it more difficult to magnetically align the grains on the disc scale. Specifically, to produce the observed ${\sim } 1{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ polarization at ${\sim } 100\, \mathrm{au}$ scale via grains aligned with the B-field, even relatively small grains of $1\, \mathrm{\mu m}$ in size need to have their magnetic susceptibilities significantly enhanced (by a factor of ∼20) over the standard value, potentially through superparamagnetic inclusions. This requirement is more stringent for larger grains,more »with the enhancement factor increasing linearly with the grain size, reaching ∼2 × 104 for millimetre-sized grains. Even if the required enhancement can be achieved, the resulting inferred magnetic field orientation in the simulation does not show a preference for the major axis, which is inconsistent with the observed pattern. We thus conclude that the observed trends are best described by the model where the polarization on the envelope scale is dominated by magnetically aligned grains and that on the disc scale by scattering.« less
  9. null (Ed.)