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  1. Abstract

    It is well known that some harmful objects in the Tanner graph of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes have a negative impact on their error correction performance under iterative message-passing decoding. Depending on the channel and the decoding algorithm, these harmful objects are different in nature and can be stopping sets, trapping sets, absorbing sets, or pseudocodewords. Differently from LDPC block codes, the design of spatially coupled LDPC codes must take into account the semi-infinite nature of the code, while still reducing the number of harmful objects as much as possible. We propose a general procedure, based onedge spreading, enabling the design of good quasi-cyclic spatially coupled LDPC (QC-SC-LDPC) codes. These codes are derived from quasi-cyclic LDPC (QC-LDPC) block codes and contain a considerably reduced number of harmful objects with respect to the original QC-LDPC block codes. We use an efficient way of enumerating harmful objects in QC-SC-LDPCCs to obtain a fast algorithm that spans the search space of potential candidates to select those minimizing the multiplicity of the target harmful objects. We validate the effectiveness of our method via numerical simulations, showing that the newly designed codes achieve better error rate performance than codes presented in previous literature.

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  2. null (Ed.)

    In the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) control room, the operators’ performance in emergencies is impacted by the need to monitor many indicators on the control room boards, the limited time to interact with dynamic events, and the incompleteness of the operator’s knowledge. Recent research has been directed toward increasing the level of automation in the NPP system by employing modern AI techniques that support the operator’s decisions. In previous work, the authors have employed a novel AI-guided declarative approach (namely, Answer Set Programming (ASP)) to represent and reason with human qualitative knowledge. This represented knowledge is structured to form a reasoning-based operator support system that assists the operator and compensates for any knowledge incompleteness by performing reasoning to diagnose failures and recommend executing actions in real time. A general ASP code structure has been proposed and tested against simple scenarios, e.g., diagnosis of pump failures that result in loss of flow transients and generating the needed plans for resolving the issue of stuck valves in the secondary loop.

    In this work, we investigate the potential of the previously proposed ASP structure by applying ASP to a realistic case study of the Three Mile Island, Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident event sequence (in particular, the first 142 minutes). The TMI scenario presents many challenges for a reasoning system, including a large number of variables, the complexity of the scenario, and the misleading readings. The capability of the ASP-based reasoning system is tested for diagnosis and recommending actions throughout the scenario. This paper is the first work to test and demonstrate the capability of an automated reasoning system by applying it to a realistic nuclear accident scenario, such as the TMI-2 accident.

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  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 15, 2024
  4. Earlier epistemic planning systems for multi-agent domains generate plans that contain various types of actions such as ontic, sensing, or announcement actions. However, none of these systems consider untruthful announcements, i.e., none can generate plans that contain a lying or a misleading announcement. In this paper, we present a novel epistemic planner, called EFP3.0, for multi-agent domains with untruthful announcements. The planner is similar to the systems EFP or EFP2.0 in that it is a forward-search planner and can deal with unlimited nested beliefs and common knowledge by employing a Kripke based state representation and implementing an update model based transition function. Different from EFP, EFP3.0 employs a specification language that uses edge-conditioned update models for reasoning about effects of actions in multi-agent domains. We describe the basics of EFP3.0 and conduct experimental evaluations of the system against state-of-the-art epistemic planners. We discuss potential improvements that could be useful for scalability and efficiency of the system. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 2, 2024
  5. A warehouse delivery problem consists of a set of robots that undertake delivery jobs within a warehouse. Items are moved around the warehouse in response to events. A solution to a warehouse delivery problem is a collision-free schedule of robot movements and actions that ensures that all delivery jobs are completed and each robot is returned to its docking station. While the warehouse delivery problem is related to existing research, such as the study of multi-agent path finding (MAPF), the specific industrial requirements necessitated a novel approach that diverges from these other approaches. For example, our problem description was more suited to formalizing the warehouse in terms of a weighted directed graph rather than the more common grid-based formalization. We formalize and encode the warehouse delivery problem in Answer Set Programming (ASP) extended with difference constraints. We systematically develop and study different encoding variants, with a view to computing good quality solutions in near real-time. In particular, application specific criteria are contrasted against the traditional notion of makespan minimization as a measure of solution quality. The encoding is tested against both crafted and industry data and experiments run using the Hybrid ASP solver clingo[dl]. 
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  6. Machine Learning (ML) algorithms have shown quite promising applications in smart meter data analytics enabling intelligent energy management systems for the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI). One of the major challenges in developing ML applications for the AMI is to preserve user privacy while allowing active end-users participation. This paper addresses this challenge and proposes Differential Privacy-enabled AMI with Federated Learning (DP-AMI-FL), framework for ML-based applications in the AMI. This framework provides two layers of privacy protection: first, it keeps the raw data of consumers hosting ML applications at edge devices (smart meters) with Federated Learning (FL), and second, it obfuscates the ML models using Differential Privacy (DP) to avoid privacy leakage threats on the models posed by various inference attacks. The framework is evaluated by analyzing its performance on a use case aimed to improve Short-Term Load Forecasting (STLF) for residential consumers having smart meters and home energy management systems. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the framework when used with Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) recurrent neural network models, achieves high forecasting accuracy while preserving users data privacy. 
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  7. Abstract A plethora of approaches have been proposed for joint entity-relation (ER) extraction. Most of these methods largely depend on a large amount of manually annotated training data. However, manual data annotation is time-consuming, labor-intensive, and error-prone. Human beings learn using both data (through induction) and knowledge (through deduction). Answer Set Programming (ASP) has been a widely utilized approach for knowledge representation and reasoning that is elaboration tolerant and adept at reasoning with incomplete information. This paper proposes a new approach, ASP-enhanced Entity-Relation extraction (ASPER), to jointly recognize entities and relations by learning from both data and domain knowledge. In particular, ASPER takes advantage of the factual knowledge (represented as facts in ASP) and derived knowledge (represented as rules in ASP) in the learning process of neural network models. We have conducted experiments on two real datasets and compare our method with three baselines. The results show that our ASPER model consistently outperforms the baselines. 
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