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  1. Abstract

    Some of the most common processes in the solar wind, such as turbulence and wave generation by instabilities, are associated with spectral magnetic helicity. Therefore, the helicity is a convenient tool to investigate these processes. We use three-dimensional nonlinear kinetic simulations with particle ions and fluid electrons to analyze the magnetic helicity produced by proton temperature anisotropy instabilities coexisting with an ambient turbulence. The symmetry of the unstable system is violated by alpha-particle streaming with respect to protons along the mean magnetic field. At the same time, the turbulent fluctuations are also imbalanced by a nonzero cross-helicity. We show that in the nonlinear phase of the instability the resulting helicity structure is different from the prediction of the linear theory. In particular, it contains sign reversals and multiple domains of nonzero helicity. The turbulence generates its own magnetic helicity signature, which extends over a wide range of angles around the direction perpendicular to the mean magnetic field, and can have a sign the same as or opposite to that of the instability. These findings are consistent with the observed helicity spectra in the solar wind.

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  2. Abstract

    We present the implementation of a two-moment-based general-relativistic multigroup radiation transport module in theGeneral-relativisticmultigridnumerical (Gmunu) code. On top of solving the general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamics and the Einstein equations with conformally flat approximations, the code solves the evolution equations of the zeroth- and first-order moments of the radiations in the Eulerian-frame. An analytic closure relation is used to obtain the higher order moments and close the system. The finite-volume discretization has been adopted for the radiation moments. The advection in spatial space and frequency-space are handled explicitly. In addition, the radiation–matter interaction terms, which are very stiff in the optically thick region, are solved implicitly. The implicit–explicit Runge–Kutta schemes are adopted for time integration. We test the implementation with a number of numerical benchmarks from frequency-integrated to frequency-dependent cases. Furthermore, we also illustrate the astrophysical applications in hot neutron star and core-collapse supernovae modelings, and compare with other neutrino transport codes.

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  3. Abstract

    Marine dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) serves as an organic nutrient to marine autotrophs, sustaining a portion of annual net community production (ANCP). Numerical models of ocean circulation and biogeochemistry have diagnosed the magnitude of this process at regional to global scales but have thus far been validated against DOP observations concentrated within the Atlantic basin. Here we assimilate a new marine DOP data set with global coverage to optimize an inverse model of the ocean phosphorus cycle to investigate the regionally variable role of marine DOP utilization by autotrophs contributing to ANCP. We find ∼25% of ANCP accumulates as DOP with a regionally variable pattern ranging from 8% to 50% across nine biomes investigated. Estimated mean surface ocean DOP lifetimes of ∼0.5–2 years allow for transport of DOP from regions of net production to net consumption in subtropical gyres. Globally, DOP utilization by autotrophs sustains ∼14% (0.9 Pg C yr−1) of ANCP with regional contributions as large as ∼75% within the oligotrophic North Atlantic and North Pacific. Shallow export and remineralization of DOP within the ocean subtropics contributes ∼30%–80% of phosphate regeneration within the upper thermocline (<300 m). These shallow isopycnals beneath the subtropical gyres harboring the preponderance of remineralized DOP outcrop near the poleward edge of each gyre, which when combined with subsequent lateral transport equatorward by Ekman convergence, provide a shallow overturning loop retaining phosphorus within the subtropical biome, likely helping to sustain gyre ANCP over multiannual to decadal timescales.

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  4. Abstract

    The proton–alpha drift instability is a possible mechanism of the alpha-particle deceleration and the resulting proton heating in the solar wind. We present hybrid numerical simulations of this instability with particle-in-cell ions and a quasi-neutralizing electron fluid for typical conditions at 1 au. For the parameters used in this paper, we find that fast magnetosonic unstable modes propagate only in the direction opposite to the alpha-particle drift and do not produce the perpendicular proton heating necessary to accelerate the solar wind. Alfvén modes propagate in both directions and heat the protons perpendicularly to the mean magnetic field. Despite being driven by the alpha temperature anisotropy, the Alfvén instability also extracts the energy from the bulk motion of the alpha particles. In the solar wind, the instabilities operate in a turbulent ambient medium. We show that the turbulence suppresses the Alfvén instability but the perpendicular proton heating persists. Unlike a static nonuniform background, the turbulence does not invert the sense of the proton heating associated with the fast magnetosonic instability and it remains preferentially parallel.

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  5. Abstract Galaxies and their dark-matter halos are commonly presupposed to spin. But it is an open question how this spin manifests in halos and soliton cores made of scalar dark matter (SDM, including fuzzy/wave/ultralight-axion dark matter). One way spin could manifest in a necessarily irrotational SDM velocity field is with a vortex. But recent results have cast doubt on this scenario, finding that vortices are generally unstable except with substantial repulsive self-interaction. In this paper, we introduce an alternative route to stability: in both (non-relativistic) analytic calculations and simulations, a black hole or other central mass at least as massive as a soliton can stabilize a vortex within it. This conclusion may also apply to AU-scale halos bound to the sun and stellar-mass-scale Bose stars. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  6. Abstract. It is well known that the polar cap, delineated by the open–closed field line boundary (OCB),responds to changes in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF).In general, the boundary moves equatorward when the IMF turns southward and contractspoleward when the IMF turns northward. However,observations of the OCB are spotty and limited in local time,making more detailed studies of its IMF dependence difficult.Here, we simulate five solar storm periods with the coupled model consisting of the OpenGeospace General Circulation Model (OpenGGCM) coupled with the Coupled Thermosphere IonosphereModel (CTIM) and the Rice Convection Model (RCM),i.e., the OpenGGCM-CTIM-RCM, to estimate the location and dynamics of the OCB.For these events, polar cap boundary location observations are also obtained from Defense MeteorologicalSatellite Program (DMSP) precipitation spectrograms and compared with the model output.There is a large scatter in the DMSP observations and in the model output.Although the model does not predict the OCB with high fidelity for every observation,it does reproduce the general trend as a function of IMF clock angle.On average, the model overestimates the latitude of the open–closed field line boundaryby 1.61∘. Additional analysis of the simulated polar cap boundary dynamics acrossall local times shows that the MLT of the largest polar cap expansion closely correlateswith the IMF clock angle, that the strongest correlation occurs when the IMF is southward, thatduring strong southward IMF the polar cap shifts sunward, and that the polar cap rapidlycontracts at all local times when the IMF turns northward. 
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  7. Abstract We perform a statistical analysis of observed magnetic spectra in the solar wind at 1 au with localized power elevations above the level of the ambient turbulent fluctuations. We show that the elevations are seen only when the intensity of the ambient fluctuations is sufficiently low. Assuming that the spectral elevations are caused by thermal-ion instabilities, this suggests that on average the effect of the solar wind background is strong enough to suppress the instability or obscure it or both. We then carry out nonlinear numerical simulations with particle ions and an electron fluid to model a thermal-ion instability coexisting with an ambient turbulence. The parameters of the simulation are taken from a known solar wind interval where an instability was assumed to exist based on the linear theory and a bi-Maxwellian fit of the observed distribution with core and secondary-beam protons. The numerical model closely matches the position of the observed spectral elevation in the wavenumber space. This confirms that the thermal-ion instability is responsible for the elevation. At the same time, the magnitude of the elevation turns out to be smaller than in the real solar wind. When higher intensity of the turbulence is used in the simulation, which is typical of solar wind in general, the power elevation is no longer seen. This is in agreement with the reduced observability of the elevations at higher intensities. However, the simulations show that the turbulence does not simply obscure the instability but also lowers its saturation level. 
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  8. The particle-in-cell numerical method of plasma physics balances a trade-off between computational cost and intrinsic noise. Inference on data produced by these simulations generally consists of binning the data to recover the particle distribution function, from which physical processes may be investigated. In addition to containing noise, the distribution function is temporally dynamic and can be non-gaussian and multi-modal, making the task of modeling it difficult. Here we demonstrate the use of normalizing flows to learn a smooth, tractable approximation to the noisy particle distribution function. We demonstrate that the resulting data driven likelihood conserves relevant physics and may be extended to encapsulate the temporal evolution of the distribution function. 
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  9. null (Ed.)