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  1. Abstract

    Classical turning surfaces of Kohn–Sham potentials separate classically allowed regions (CARs) from classically forbidden regions (CFRs). They are useful for understanding many chemical properties of molecules but need not exist in solids, where the density never decays to zero. At equilibrium geometries, we find that CFRs are absent in perfect metals, rare in covalent semiconductors at equilibrium, but common in ionic and molecular crystals. In all materials, CFRs appear or grow as the internuclear distances are uniformly expanded. They can also appear at a monovacancy in a metal. Calculations with several approximate density functionals and codes confirm these behaviors. A classical picture of conduction suggests that CARs should be connected in metals, and disconnected in wide-gap insulators, and is confirmed in the limits of extreme compression and expansion. Surprisingly, many semiconductors have no CFR at equilibrium, a key finding for density functional construction. Nonetheless, a strong correlation with insulating behavior can still be inferred. Moreover, equilibrium bond lengths for all cases can be estimated from the bond type and the sum of the classical turning radii of the free atoms or ions.

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  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 12, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 4, 2024
  4. In this paper. the history, present status, and future of density-functional theory (DFT) is informally reviewed and discussed by 69 workers in the field, including molecular scientists, materials scientists, method developers and practitioners, The format of the paper is that of a roundtable discussion, in which the participants express and exchange views on DFT in the form of 300 individual contributions, formulated as responses to a preset list of 26 questions. Supported by a bibliography of 743 entries, the paper represents a snapshot of DFT, anno 2022. 
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  5. M. Lewin, Rupert L. (Ed.)
    Abstract: Lieb and Oxford (1981) derived rigorous lower bounds, in the form of local functionals of the electron density, on the indirect part of the Coulomb repulsion energy. The greatest lower bound for a given electron number N depends monotonically upon N, and the N→∞ limit is a bound for all N. These bounds have been shown to apply to the exact density functionals for the exchange- and exchange-correlation energies that must be approximated for an accurate and computationally efficient description of atoms, molecules, and solids. A tight bound on the exact exchange energy has been derived therefrom for two-electron ground states, and is conjectured to apply to all spin-unpolarized electronic ground states. Some of these and other exact constraints have been used to construct two generations of non-empirical density functionals beyond the local density approximation: the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) generalized gradient approximation (GGA), and the strongly constrained and appropriately normed (SCAN) meta-GGA. 
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