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  1. Abstract

    Frequent drought and high temperature conditions in California vineyards necessitate plant stress detection to support irrigation management strategies and decision making. Remote sensing provides a powerful tool to continuously monitor vegetation function across spatial and temporal scales. In this study, we utilized a tower-based optical-remote sensing system to continuously monitor four vineyard subplots in California’s Central Valley. We compared the performance of the greenness-based normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the physiology-based photochemical reflectance index (PRI) to track variations of eddy covariance estimated gross primary productivity (GPP) during four stress events between July and September 2020. Our results demonstrate that NDVI was invariant during stress events. In contrast, PRI was effective at tracking the short-term stress-induced declines and recovery of GPP associated with soil water depletion and increased air temperature, as well as reductions in GPP from decreased PAR caused by smokey conditions from nearby fires. Canopy-scale remote sensing can provide continuous real-time data, and physiology-based vegetation indices such as PRI can be used to monitor variation of photosynthetic activity during stress events to aid in management decisions.

  2. Abstract

    Reduced stomatal conductance is a common plant response to rising atmospheric CO2and increases water use efficiency (W). At the leaf-scale,Wdepends on water and nitrogen availability in addition to atmospheric CO2. In hydroclimate modelsWis a key driver of rainfall, droughts, and streamflow extremes. We used global climate data to derive Aridity Indices (AI) for forests over the period 1965–2015 and synthesised those with data for nitrogen deposition andWderived from stable isotopes in tree rings. AI and atmospheric CO2account for most of the variance inWof trees across the globe, while cumulative nitrogen deposition has a significant effect only in regions without strong legacies of atmospheric pollution. The relation of aridity andWdisplays a clear discontinuity.Wand AI are strongly related below a threshold value of AI ≈ 1 but are not related where AI > 1. Tree ring data emphasise that effective demarcation of water-limited from non-water-limited behaviour of stomata is critical to improving hydrological models that operate at regional to global scales.

  3. Penuelas, Josep (Ed.)
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 8, 2023
  6. Steppe, Kathy (Ed.)
    Abstract Sap velocity measurements are useful in fields ranging from plant water relations to hydrology at a variety of scales. Techniques based on pulses of heat are among the most common methods to measure sap velocity, but most lack ability to measure velocities across a wide range, including very high, very low and negative velocities (reverse flow). We propose a new method, the double-ratio method (DRM), which is robust across an unprecedented range of sap velocities and provides real-time estimates of the thermal diffusivity of wood. The DRM employs one temperature sensor upstream (proximal) and two sensors downstream (distal) to the source of heat. This facilitates several theoretical, heat-based approaches to quantifying sap velocity. We tested the DRM using whole-tree lysimetry in Eucalyptus cypellocarpa L.A.S. Johnson and found strong agreement across a wide range of velocities.